Stressor: 521

Title

To create a new stressor, from the Listing Stressors page at https://aopwiki.org/stressors click ‘New stressor.’ This will bring you to a page entitled “New Stressor” where a stressor title can be entered. Click ‘Create stressor’ to create a new Stressor page listing the stressor title at the top. More help

Bisphenol A

Stressor Overview

The stressor field is a structured data field that can be used to annotate an AOP with standardised terms identifying stressors known to trigger the MIE/AOP. Most often these are chemical names selected from established chemical ontologies. However, depending on the information available, this could also refer to chemical categories (i.e., groups of chemicals with defined structural features known to trigger the MIE). It can also include non-chemical stressors such as genetic or environmental factors. More help

AOPs Including This Stressor

This table is automatically generated and lists the AOPs associated with this Stressor. More help

Events Including This Stressor

This table is automatically generated and lists the Key Events associated with this Stressor. More help

Chemical Table

The Chemical Table lists chemicals associated with a stressor. This table contains information about the User’s term for a chemical, the DTXID, Preferred name, CAS number, JChem InChIKey, and Indigo InChIKey.To add a chemical associated with a particular stressor, next to the Chemical Table click ‘Add chemical.’ This will redirect you to a page entitled “New Stressor Chemical.’ The dialog box can be used to search for chemical by name, CAS number, JChem InChIKey, and Indigo InChIKey. Searching by these fields will bring forward a drop down list of existing stressor chemicals formatted as  Preferred name, “CAS- preferred name,” “JChem InChIKey – preferred name,” or “Indigo InChIKey- preferred name,” depending on by which field you perform the search. It may take several moments for the drop down list to display. Select an entity from the drop down list and click ‘Add chemical.’ This will return you to the Stressor Page, where the new record should be in the ‘Chemical Table’ on the page.To remove a chemical associated with a particular stressor, in the Chemical Table next to the chemical you wish to delete, click ‘Remove’ and then click 'OK.' The chemical should no longer be visible in the Chemical table. More help
User term DTXID Preferred name Casrn jchem_inchi_key indigo_inchi_key
Bisphenol A DTXSID7020182 Bisphenol A 80-05-7 IISBACLAFKSPIT-UHFFFAOYSA-N IISBACLAFKSPIT-UHFFFAOYSA-N

AOP Evidence

This table is automatically generated and includes the AOPs with this associated stressor as well as the evidence term and evidence text from this AOP Stressor. More help

Event Evidence

This table is automatically generated and includes the Events with this associated stressor as well as the evidence text from this Event Stressor. More help
Binding to estrogen receptor (ER)-α in immune cells

There is no evidence text for this event.

Induction of GATA3 expression

GATA3 expression is induced in Th cells primed by dendritic cells exposed to BPA (Guo H. 2010).  Purified naive T cells were cultured and expanded under Th1 culture conditions in the presence or absence of 0.3 μM 4-HT (Research Biochemicals Institute) for 2 weeks starting from days 1, 7, 14, or 21 (Kurata H. 1999).

Increase of Th2 cells producing IL-4

Mouse lymphocytes stimulated with a massive amount of BPA (50 μM) were Th2 polarized, with prominent elevation of IL-4 as well as IL-10 (Lee J. 2010).  Similarly, BPA enhanced IL-4 production in antigen-activated T cells by ELISA or RT-PCR, although the concentrations of BPA that they utilized (10-50 μM) were high (Lee MH. 2003).  In this experiment, IL-4 level is confirmed baseline when treated with anti-CD4 mAb.  Exposure to BPA in adulthood mice promoted antigen-stimulated levels of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13, but not IFN-γ (Huimin Y. 2008).

Increase of anti-DNA antibody from autoreactive B cell

BPA as well as E2 and diethylstilbestrol (DES) enhanced anti-Br-RBC autoantibody production by B1 cells in vivo.  IgM production by B1 cells in the presence of ED was more prominent on aged BWF1 mice developing lupus nephritis. (Yurino H. 2004). 

In a murine model of SLE, BPA increased the number of B cells producing autoantibodies, and IgM antibody secretion by B1 cells was augmented (Yurino H. 2004).  

To examine a direct effect of endocrine disruptors on IgM antibody production by B1 or B2 cells, B1 cells were prepared from peritoneal cells and B2 cells from spleen, B1 or B2 cells were cultured in the presence of endocrine disruptors (E2: 100 nM, DES: 100 nM, BPA: 1 μM) for 4 days (Yurino H. 2004). 

Exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

There is no evidence text for this event.

Disrupted meiotic initiation of fetal oogonia of the ovary

Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure may delay entry into meiotic prophase I in mice, potentially through reduced Stra8 expression (Zhang et al, 2012). This effect from BPA exposure was not seen in a second mouse study (Lawson et al, 2011), nor in human ovary explant cultures (Brieño-Enríquez et al, 2012). As such, it remains uncertain if BPA can prevent oocytes from entering meiosis.  

Reduced size of the ovarian follicle pool

Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure during the postnatal period (20 mg/kg, s.c., 1, 3, 5, and 7 dpp, killen on 8 dpp) reduced the number of primordial follicles in rats exposed postnatally (Rodríguez et al. 2010). In mice exposed exposed to BPA during fetal life (0.5 and 50 µg/kg/day, oral, 11 dpc-birth, killed on 4 dpp) reduced number of primordial follicles were seen (Wang et al. 2014). Reduced number of primordial follicles was also seen in mice exposed during a shorter window of time during fetal life (0.08mg/kg, oral, 12.5-18.5 dpc, killed 15.5, 17.5 and 19.5 dpc and 3, 5 and 7 dpp (Zhang et al. 2012).

Increased (ectopic) all-trans retinoic acid concentration

Bisphenol A, an organic synthetic compound used to make polycarbonate plastic. In mice, BPA exposure increased levels of atRA and expression of RA biosynthesis enzymes (incl Adh1 and Cyp1a2) (Esteban et al, 2019).

Stressor Info

Text sections under this subheading include the Chemical/Category Description and Characterization of Exposure. More help
Chemical/Category Description
To edit the Chemical/Category Description” section, on a KER page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “Chemical/Category Description” section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “Chemical/Category Description”  section on the page. More help
Characterization of Exposure
To edit the “Characterization of Exposure” section, on a Stressor page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “Characterization of Exposure”  section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “Characterization of Exposure” section on the page. More help

References

List of the literature that was cited for this Stressor description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide (https://www.oecd.org/about/publishing/OECD-Style-Guide-Third-Edition.pdf) (OECD, 2015).To edit the “References” section, on a Stressor page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “References” section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “References” section on the page. More help