Stressor: 649

Title

To create a new stressor, from the Listing Stressors page at https://aopwiki.org/stressors click ‘New stressor.’ This will bring you to a page entitled “New Stressor” where a stressor title can be entered. Click ‘Create stressor’ to create a new Stressor page listing the stressor title at the top. More help

Paraoxon

Stressor Overview

The stressor field is a structured data field that can be used to annotate an AOP with standardised terms identifying stressors known to trigger the MIE/AOP. Most often these are chemical names selected from established chemical ontologies. However, depending on the information available, this could also refer to chemical categories (i.e., groups of chemicals with defined structural features known to trigger the MIE). It can also include non-chemical stressors such as genetic or environmental factors. More help

AOPs Including This Stressor

This table is automatically generated and lists the AOPs associated with this Stressor. More help

Events Including This Stressor

This table is automatically generated and lists the Key Events associated with this Stressor. More help

Chemical Table

The Chemical Table lists chemicals associated with a stressor. This table contains information about the User’s term for a chemical, the DTXID, Preferred name, CAS number, JChem InChIKey, and Indigo InChIKey.To add a chemical associated with a particular stressor, next to the Chemical Table click ‘Add chemical.’ This will redirect you to a page entitled “New Stressor Chemical.’ The dialog box can be used to search for chemical by name, CAS number, JChem InChIKey, and Indigo InChIKey. Searching by these fields will bring forward a drop down list of existing stressor chemicals formatted as  Preferred name, “CAS- preferred name,” “JChem InChIKey – preferred name,” or “Indigo InChIKey- preferred name,” depending on by which field you perform the search. It may take several moments for the drop down list to display. Select an entity from the drop down list and click ‘Add chemical.’ This will return you to the Stressor Page, where the new record should be in the ‘Chemical Table’ on the page.To remove a chemical associated with a particular stressor, in the Chemical Table next to the chemical you wish to delete, click ‘Remove’ and then click 'OK.' The chemical should no longer be visible in the Chemical table. More help
User term DTXID Preferred name Casrn jchem_inchi_key indigo_inchi_key
Paraoxon DTXSID6024046 Paraoxon 311-45-5 WYMSBXTXOHUIGT-UHFFFAOYSA-N WYMSBXTXOHUIGT-UHFFFAOYSA-N

AOP Evidence

This table is automatically generated and includes the AOPs with this associated stressor as well as the evidence term and evidence text from this AOP Stressor. More help
Organo-Phosphate Chemicals induced inhibition of AChE leading to impaired cognitive function

Paraoxon is an active metabolite of OP pesticide parathion which has been weaponized and used as a chemical-warfare agent that yields high mortality (Laxmikant 2014). Paraoxon is one of the most potent cholinesterase-inhibiting insecticides which is easily absorbed through skin and has been used to study acute and chronic effects of organophosphate intoxication (Deshpande LS et al., 2014). There is strong literature evidence demonstrating inhibition of AChE by paraoxon exposure leading to neurotoxicity. Paroxon inhibition of the enzyme AChE also potentially leads to enhanced glutamate release, diminished GABA uptake, oxidative damage, and neurodegeneration (Farizatto KLG et al., 2017). AChE inhibition and subsequent increased ACh levels can trigger seizures and cause neuronal and excitotoxic damage in the brain.  Asymptomatic low-level exposure to such anticholinesterase toxins can also leave the brain vulnerable or even cause it to exhibit neurological problems later in life. Paraoxon exposure initiates a pathogenic cascade involving seizure events and subsequent signs of damage including unique presynaptic vulnerability and associated behavioral deficits (Farizatto KLG et al., 2017).  Paraoxon-mediated synaptotoxicity is also associated with enhanced production of oxidative stress as well as integrin adhesion responses (Farizatto KLG et al., 2017).

Event Evidence

This table is automatically generated and includes the Events with this associated stressor as well as the evidence text from this Event Stressor. More help

Stressor Info

Text sections under this subheading include the Chemical/Category Description and Characterization of Exposure. More help
Chemical/Category Description
To edit the Chemical/Category Description” section, on a KER page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “Chemical/Category Description” section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “Chemical/Category Description”  section on the page. More help
Characterization of Exposure
To edit the “Characterization of Exposure” section, on a Stressor page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “Characterization of Exposure”  section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “Characterization of Exposure” section on the page. More help

References

List of the literature that was cited for this Stressor description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide (https://www.oecd.org/about/publishing/OECD-Style-Guide-Third-Edition.pdf) (OECD, 2015).To edit the “References” section, on a Stressor page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “References” section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “References” section on the page. More help