Stressor: 660

Title

To create a new stressor, from the Listing Stressors page at https://aopwiki.org/stressors click ‘New stressor.’ This will bring you to a page entitled “New Stressor” where a stressor title can be entered. Click ‘Create stressor’ to create a new Stressor page listing the stressor title at the top. More help

PM10

Stressor Overview

The stressor field is a structured data field that can be used to annotate an AOP with standardised terms identifying stressors known to trigger the MIE/AOP. Most often these are chemical names selected from established chemical ontologies. However, depending on the information available, this could also refer to chemical categories (i.e., groups of chemicals with defined structural features known to trigger the MIE). It can also include non-chemical stressors such as genetic or environmental factors. More help

AOPs Including This Stressor

This table is automatically generated and lists the AOPs associated with this Stressor. More help

Events Including This Stressor

This table is automatically generated and lists the Key Events associated with this Stressor. More help

Chemical Table

The Chemical Table lists chemicals associated with a stressor. This table contains information about the User’s term for a chemical, the DTXID, Preferred name, CAS number, JChem InChIKey, and Indigo InChIKey.To add a chemical associated with a particular stressor, next to the Chemical Table click ‘Add chemical.’ This will redirect you to a page entitled “New Stressor Chemical.’ The dialog box can be used to search for chemical by name, CAS number, JChem InChIKey, and Indigo InChIKey. Searching by these fields will bring forward a drop down list of existing stressor chemicals formatted as  Preferred name, “CAS- preferred name,” “JChem InChIKey – preferred name,” or “Indigo InChIKey- preferred name,” depending on by which field you perform the search. It may take several moments for the drop down list to display. Select an entity from the drop down list and click ‘Add chemical.’ This will return you to the Stressor Page, where the new record should be in the ‘Chemical Table’ on the page.To remove a chemical associated with a particular stressor, in the Chemical Table next to the chemical you wish to delete, click ‘Remove’ and then click 'OK.' The chemical should no longer be visible in the Chemical table. More help

AOP Evidence

This table is automatically generated and includes the AOPs with this associated stressor as well as the evidence term and evidence text from this AOP Stressor. More help

Event Evidence

This table is automatically generated and includes the Events with this associated stressor as well as the evidence text from this Event Stressor. More help
Mucociliary Clearance, Decreased

Incubation of frog palates with PM10 from Sao Paolo, Brazil, for up to 120 min decreased mucociliary transport at concentrations ≥1000 pg/m3 (Macchione et al., 1999).

Chronic, Mucus hypersecretion

A statistically significant positive association was seen between prevalent chronic bronchitis, defined as chronic cough productive of phlegm for at least 3 months out of a year for a minimum of 2 consecutive years, and PM10 [estimated median exposure concentration: 2.16 μg/m3 (interquartile range: 5.8 μg/m3); odds ratio (OR) per IQR increase in PM10 = 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.13] and chronic phlegm (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.11) in the NIEHS Sister Study (Hooper et al., 2018).

The SAPALDIA study observed that an increase of 10 mg/m3 in PM10 levels was associated with an increase in the prevalence of chronic phlegm, and chronic cough or phlegm.  Within the range of 10.1 to 33.4 mg/m3 PM10, the OR for an increase of 10 mg/m3 in the annual mean was 1.35 (CI: 1.11 to 1.65) for chronic phlegm among never-smokers and 1.27(CI: 1.08 to 1.50) for chronic cough or phlegm (Zemp et al., 1999).

Nonsmoking women cooking with wood stoves reported chronic phlegm more frequently than those cooking with gas stoves. The peak indoor concentration of particulate matter (PM10) often exceeded 2 mg/m(Regalado et al., 2006).

Nonsmokers who experienced several years of many days per year when PM10 exceeded 80 pg/mdeveloped chronic productive cough and overall chronic bronchitis significantly more frequently than those not exposed to PM10 concentrations below this cut-off (Abbey et al., 1998).  

Decrease, Lung function

A Taiwanese study in 1016 children between 6 and 15 years of age reported that lifetime exposure to to 25–85 μg/m3 PM10 were associated with lower FEV1, FVC, and FEF25-75 (Tsui et al., 2018).

The Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) found that an increase of 10 μg/m3 in annual mean concentration of PM10 was associated with 3.4% lower FVC and 1.6% lower FEV1 (Ackermann-Liebrich et al., 1997).

In the Health Survey for England, a 10 mg/m3 difference in PM10 across postcode sectors was associated with a lower FEV1 by 111 mL,  independent of active and passive smoking, social class, region and month of testing (Forbes et al., 2009). 

A 7 μg/m3 increase in five year means of PM10 (interquartile range) was associated with a 5.1% (95% CI: 2.5%–7.7%) decrease in FEV1, a 3.7% (95% CI: 1.8%–5.5%) decrease in FVC in the German SALIA study (Schikowski et al., 2005).

The ESCAPE project, a meta-analysis of 5 European cohorts/studies from 8 countries, reported that an increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM10 was associated with a lower level of FEV1 (−44.6 mL, 95% CI:−85.4– −3.8) and FVC (−59.0 mL, 95% CI: −112.3– −5.7) (Adam et al., 2015).

Stressor Info

Text sections under this subheading include the Chemical/Category Description and Characterization of Exposure. More help
Chemical/Category Description
To edit the Chemical/Category Description” section, on a KER page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “Chemical/Category Description” section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “Chemical/Category Description”  section on the page. More help
Characterization of Exposure
To edit the “Characterization of Exposure” section, on a Stressor page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “Characterization of Exposure”  section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “Characterization of Exposure” section on the page. More help

References

List of the literature that was cited for this Stressor description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide (https://www.oecd.org/about/publishing/OECD-Style-Guide-Third-Edition.pdf) (OECD, 2015).To edit the “References” section, on a Stressor page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “References” section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “References” section on the page. More help