AOPs Including This Stressor
Events Including This Stressor
Incubation of frog palates with PM10 from Sao Paolo, Brazil, for up to 120 min decreased mucociliary transport at concentrations ≥1000 pg/m3 (Macchione et al., 1999).
A statistically significant positive association was seen between prevalent chronic bronchitis, defined as chronic cough productive of phlegm for at least 3 months out of a year for a minimum of 2 consecutive years, and PM10 [estimated median exposure concentration: 2.16 μg/m3 (interquartile range: 5.8 μg/m3); odds ratio (OR) per IQR increase in PM10 = 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.13] and chronic phlegm (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.11) in the NIEHS Sister Study (Hooper et al., 2018).
The SAPALDIA study observed that an increase of 10 mg/m3 in PM10 levels was associated with an increase in the prevalence of chronic phlegm, and chronic cough or phlegm. Within the range of 10.1 to 33.4 mg/m3 PM10, the OR for an increase of 10 mg/m3 in the annual mean was 1.35 (CI: 1.11 to 1.65) for chronic phlegm among never-smokers and 1.27(CI: 1.08 to 1.50) for chronic cough or phlegm (Zemp et al., 1999).
Nonsmoking women cooking with wood stoves reported chronic phlegm more frequently than those cooking with gas stoves. The peak indoor concentration of particulate matter (PM10) often exceeded 2 mg/m3 (Regalado et al., 2006).
Nonsmokers who experienced several years of many days per year when PM10 exceeded 80 pg/m3 developed chronic productive cough and overall chronic bronchitis significantly more frequently than those not exposed to PM10 concentrations below this cut-off (Abbey et al., 1998).
A Taiwanese study in 1016 children between 6 and 15 years of age reported that lifetime exposure to to 25–85 μg/m3 PM10 were associated with lower FEV1, FVC, and FEF25-75 (Tsui et al., 2018).
The Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) found that an increase of 10 μg/m3 in annual mean concentration of PM10 was associated with 3.4% lower FVC and 1.6% lower FEV1 (Ackermann-Liebrich et al., 1997).
In the Health Survey for England, a 10 mg/m3 difference in PM10 across postcode sectors was associated with a lower FEV1 by 111 mL, independent of active and passive smoking, social class, region and month of testing (Forbes et al., 2009).
A 7 μg/m3 increase in five year means of PM10 (interquartile range) was associated with a 5.1% (95% CI: 2.5%–7.7%) decrease in FEV1, a 3.7% (95% CI: 1.8%–5.5%) decrease in FVC in the German SALIA study (Schikowski et al., 2005).
The ESCAPE project, a meta-analysis of 5 European cohorts/studies from 8 countries, reported that an increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM10 was associated with a lower level of FEV1 (−44.6 mL, 95% CI:−85.4– −3.8) and FVC (−59.0 mL, 95% CI: −112.3– −5.7) (Adam et al., 2015).