Stressor: 717

Title

To create a new stressor, from the Listing Stressors page at https://aopwiki.org/stressors click ‘New stressor.’ This will bring you to a page entitled “New Stressor” where a stressor title can be entered. Click ‘Create stressor’ to create a new Stressor page listing the stressor title at the top. More help

Nanoparticles and Micrometer Particles

Stressor Overview

The stressor field is a structured data field that can be used to annotate an AOP with standardised terms identifying stressors known to trigger the MIE/AOP. Most often these are chemical names selected from established chemical ontologies. However, depending on the information available, this could also refer to chemical categories (i.e., groups of chemicals with defined structural features known to trigger the MIE). It can also include non-chemical stressors such as genetic or environmental factors. More help

AOPs Including This Stressor

This table is automatically generated and lists the AOPs associated with this Stressor. More help

Events Including This Stressor

This table is automatically generated and lists the Key Events associated with this Stressor. More help

Chemical Table

The Chemical Table lists chemicals associated with a stressor. This table contains information about the User’s term for a chemical, the DTXID, Preferred name, CAS number, JChem InChIKey, and Indigo InChIKey.To add a chemical associated with a particular stressor, next to the Chemical Table click ‘Add chemical.’ This will redirect you to a page entitled “New Stressor Chemical.’ The dialog box can be used to search for chemical by name, CAS number, JChem InChIKey, and Indigo InChIKey. Searching by these fields will bring forward a drop down list of existing stressor chemicals formatted as  Preferred name, “CAS- preferred name,” “JChem InChIKey – preferred name,” or “Indigo InChIKey- preferred name,” depending on by which field you perform the search. It may take several moments for the drop down list to display. Select an entity from the drop down list and click ‘Add chemical.’ This will return you to the Stressor Page, where the new record should be in the ‘Chemical Table’ on the page.To remove a chemical associated with a particular stressor, in the Chemical Table next to the chemical you wish to delete, click ‘Remove’ and then click 'OK.' The chemical should no longer be visible in the Chemical table. More help

AOP Evidence

This table is automatically generated and includes the AOPs with this associated stressor as well as the evidence term and evidence text from this AOP Stressor. More help

Event Evidence

This table is automatically generated and includes the Events with this associated stressor as well as the evidence text from this Event Stressor. More help
Increase, Mitochondrial Dysfunction

Karlsson et al. (2009) conducted experiments to examine the effects of micrometer and nanoparticle treatments of copper and iron on human alveolar type-II epithelial cells. Their results showed that copper oxide micrometer and nanoparticle treatments were able to cause dose-dependant mitochondrial depolarization with doses as low as 5 µg/cm2 (Karlsson et al., 2009). Iron(III) oxide nanoparticles and micrometer particles were both able to cause similar amounts of mitochondrial depolarization, along with iron (IV) oxide micrometer particles, however they were all much less toxic than copper oxide nanoparticles or micrometer particles (Karlsson et al., 2009).

The effects of gold nanoparticle (Au1.4MS) treatment on human cervical cancer cells were assessed by Pan et al. (2009), who found that the treated cells experienced a significant increase in permeability transition.

Huerta-García et al. (2014) studied the effects of titanium oxide nanoparticle treatment on glial tumor rat neuronal cells and cancerous human brain cells. Their results showed that in the treated rat and human cells there was a clear time-dependant increase in depolarization (Huerta-García et al., 2014). They also found that both the human and rat cells showed time-dependant decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential, with the TiO2 nanoparticles being more toxic to the human cells, which showed significant decrease as early as 2 hours post-treatment, while the rat cells did not show significant decrease until 6 hours post-treatment (Huerta-García et al., 2014).

Zhang et al. (2018) investigated the effects of copper nanoparticles on mitochondrial membrane potential in pig kidney cells and found that the treated cells showed a dose-dependant increase in the rate of mitochondrial membrane potential change from 40 µg/mL to 80 µg/mL when treated for 12 hours.

N/A, Mitochondrial dysfunction 1

Karlsson et al. (2009) conducted experiments to examine the effects of micrometer and nanoparticle treatments of copper and iron on human alveolar type-II epithelial cells. Their results showed that copper oxide micrometer and nanoparticle treatments were able to cause dose-dependant mitochondrial depolarization with doses as low as 5 µg/cm2 (Karlsson et al., 2009). Iron(III) oxide nanoparticles and micrometer particles were both able to cause similar amounts of mitochondrial depolarization, along with iron (IV) oxide micrometer particles, however they were all much less toxic than copper oxide nanoparticles or micrometer particles (Karlsson et al., 2009).

The effects of gold nanoparticle (Au1.4MS) treatment on human cervical cancer cells were assessed by Pan et al. (2009), who found that the treated cells experienced a significant increase in permeability transition.

Huerta-García et al. (2014) studied the effects of titanium oxide nanoparticle treatment on glial tumor rat neuronal cells and cancerous human brain cells. Their results showed that in the treated rat and human cells there was a clear time-dependant increase in depolarization (Huerta-García et al., 2014). Both the human and rat cells showed time-dependant decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential. The TiO2 nanoparticles were more toxic to the human cells than to the rat cells. The human cells showed a significant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential as early as 2 hours post-treatment, while the rat cells did not show significant decrease until 6 hours post-treatment (Huerta-García et al., 2014).

Zhang et al. (2018) investigated the effects of copper nanoparticles on mitochondrial membrane potential in pig kidney cells and found that the treated cells showed a dose-dependant increase in the rate of mitochondrial membrane potential change from 40 µg/mL to 80 µg/mL when treated for 12 hours.

Increase, Cytotoxicity (renal tubular cell)

Zhang et al. (2018) conducted a study investigating the effects of copper nanoparticle treatment on pig kidney cells. Their results showed that pig kidney cells experience dose- and time-dependant decreases in cell viability when treated with 60 μg/mL of copper nanoparticles for 6 hours or more, or 20 μg/mL for 12 hours or more (Zhang et al., 2018).

Karlsson et al. (2009) investigated the effects of varying heavy metal nanoparticles and micrometer particles on human alveolar type-II epithelial cells and found that only copper nanoparticles, copper micrometer particles, and iron(II) nanoparticles caused a significant increase in cytotoxicity when used to treat cells. Copper nanoparticles were the most toxic treatment, causing complete cytotoxicity in the treated cells, while copper micrometer particles were only able to cause a 31% increase in cytotoxicity and iron(II) nanoparticles were only able to cause a 5% increase in non-viable cells (Karlsson et al., 2009).

Pan et al. (2009) investigated the effects of gold nanoparticles (Au1.4MS) on human cervix carcinoma cells and found that the treated cells experience a dose-dependant increase in cytotoxicity, which resulted in the determination of an IC50 of 48 μM. When they assayed the histological effect of the nanoparticles, Pan et al. (2009) also found that the treated cells showed increased cell death.

Liu et al. (2010) found that when rat kidney cells were treated with titanium oxide nanoparticles, they showed a time- and dose-dependant decrease in cell viability, with significance occurring at 6 hours for 100 μg/mL and 12 hours for 10 and 50 μg/mL.

Stressor Info

Text sections under this subheading include the Chemical/Category Description and Characterization of Exposure. More help
Chemical/Category Description
To edit the Chemical/Category Description” section, on a KER page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “Chemical/Category Description” section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “Chemical/Category Description”  section on the page. More help
Characterization of Exposure
To edit the “Characterization of Exposure” section, on a Stressor page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “Characterization of Exposure”  section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “Characterization of Exposure” section on the page. More help

References

List of the literature that was cited for this Stressor description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide (https://www.oecd.org/about/publishing/OECD-Style-Guide-Third-Edition.pdf) (OECD, 2015).To edit the “References” section, on a Stressor page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “References” section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “References” section on the page. More help