The mitochondrion is central for diverse types of physiological processes, such as energy production, cell cycle regulation, lipid metabolism and ion homeostasis. Mitochondrial dysfunction has frequently been reported as a common (eco)toxicological effect induced by a wide range of environmental stressors through direct or indirect modes of action (Meyer et al., 2013). Chemical mediated mitochondrial dysfunctions are tightly associated with various diseases in human, such as neurodegeneration, cardiovascular malfunction, diabetes and cancer, and multiple types of effects in wildlife, such as metabolic disorders, growth arrest, developmental abnormalities, reproduction failure, mortality and population decline (Meyer et al., 2013). Several mitochondrial dysfunction related MIEs have been well characterized, such as uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and inhibition of specific protein complexes in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. These MIEs commonly affect the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP synthetic processes, induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipid, modulate plasma membrane ion transporter activities and trigger programmed cell death.