Key Event Title
|Level of Biological Organization|
Key Event Components
|swim bladder inflation||posterior chamber swim bladder||decreased|
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
|AOP Name||Role of event in AOP|
|DIO2i posterior swim bladder||KeyEvent|
|DIO1i posterior swim bladder||KeyEvent|
|fathead minnow||Pimephales promelas||High||NCBI|
Key Event Description
The swim bladder of bony fish is evolutionary homologous to the lung (Zheng et al., 2011). The teleost swim bladder is a gas-filled structure that consists of two chambers, the posterior and anterior chamber. In zebrafish, the posterior chamber inflates around 96 h post fertilization (hpf) which is 2 days post hatch, and the anterior chamber inflates around 21 dpf. In fathead minnow, the posterior and anterior chamber inflate around 6 and 14 dpf respectively.
The posterior chamber is formed from a bud originating from the foregut endoderm (Winata et al., 2009). The posterior chamber operates as a hydrostatic organ. The volume of gas in the adult swim bladder is continuously adjusted to regulate body density and buoyancy.
Many amphibians and frogs go through an embryo-larval transition phase marking the switch from endogenous feeding (from the yolk) to exogenous feeding. In zebrafish, embryonic-to-larval transition takes place around 96 hours post fertilization (hpf). As in amphibians, the transition between the different developmental phases includes maturation and inflation of the swim bladder (Liu and Chan, 2002).
Reduced inflation of the posterior chamber may manifest itself as either a complete failure to inflate the chamber or a reduced size of the chamber.
How It Is Measured or Detected
In several fish species, inflation of the posterior chamber can easily be observed using a stereomicroscope because the larvae are still transparent during those early developmental stages. This is for example true for zebrafish and fathead minnow. Posterior chamber size can then be measured based on photographs with a calibrator.
Domain of Applicability
Teleost fish can be divided in two groups according to swim bladder morphology: physoclistous (e.g., yellow perch) and physostomus (e.g., zebrafish and fathead minnow). Physostomus fish retain a duct between the digestive tract and the swim bladder during adulthood allowing them to gulp air at the surface to fill the swim bladder. In contrast, in physoclistous fish, once initial inflation by gulping atmospheric air at the water surface has occurred, the swim bladder is closed off from the digestive tract and swim bladder volume is regulated by gas secretion into the swim bladder (Wooley and Qin, 2010).
The evidence for impaired posterior chamber of the swim bladder currently comes from work on zebrafish and fathead minnow.
Liu, Y.W., Chan, W.K., 2002. Thyroid hormones are important for embryonic tolarval transitory phase in zebrafish. Differentiation 70, 36–45, http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1432-0436.2002.700104.x.
Winata, C.L., Korzh, S., Kondrychyn, I., Zheng, W., Korzh, V., Gong, Z., 2009.Development of zebrafish swimbladder: the requirement of Hedgehogsignaling in specification and organization of the three tissue layers. Dev. Biol.331, 222–236, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2009.04.035.
Woolley, L.D., Qin, J.G., 2010. Swimbladder inflation and its implication to the culture of marine finfish larvae. Reviews in Aquaculture 2, 181-190.
Zheng, W., Wang, Z., Collins, J.E., Andrews, R.M., Stemple, D., Gong, Z., 2011.Comparative transcriptome analyses indicate molecular homology of zebrafishswimbladder and mammalian lung. PLoS One 6, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024019.