Key Event Title
|Level of Biological Organization|
Key Event Components
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
|AOP Name||Role of event in AOP|
|DIO2i posterior swim bladder||KeyEvent|
|DIO2i anterior swim bladder||KeyEvent|
|DIO1i posterior swim bladder||KeyEvent|
|DIO1i anterior swim bladder||KeyEvent|
|TPOi anterior swim bladder||KeyEvent|
|Lysyl oxidase inhibition||KeyEvent|
|GR Agonism Leading to Impaired Fin Regeneration||KeyEvent|
|teleost fish||teleost fish||High||NCBI|
|fathead minnow||Pimephales promelas||High||NCBI|
|All life stages||High|
Key Event Description
Adequate swimming performance in fish is essential for behaviour such as foraging, predator avoidance and reproduction.
How It Is Measured or Detected
For fish larvae, automated observation and tracking systems are commercially available and increasingly used for measuring swimming performance including distance travelled, duration of movements, swimming speed, etc. This kind of measurements is often included in publications describing effects of chemicals in zebrafish larvae (Hagenaars et al., 2014; Stinckens et al., 2016; Vergauwen et al., 2015).
For juvenile and adult fish, measurements of swim performance vary. However, in some circumstances, a swim tunnel has been used to measure various data (Fu et al., 2013).
Domain of Applicability
Taxonomic: Importance of swimming performance for natural behaviour is generally applicable to fish.
Life stage: Importance of swimming performance for natural behaviour is generally applicable across all life stages.
Sex: Importance of swimming performance for natural behaviour is generally applicable across sexes.
Fu C, Cao ZD, Fu SJ. 2013. The effects of caudal fin loss and regeneration on the swimming performance of three cyprinid fish species with different swimming capactities. The Journal of Experimental Biology 216:3164-3174. doi:10.1242/jeb.084244
Hagenaars, A., Stinckens, E., Vergauwen, L., Bervoets, L., Knapen, D., 2014. PFOSaffects posterior swim bladder chamber inflation and swimming performanceof zebrafish larvae. Aquat. Toxicol. 157, 225–235.
Stinckens, E., Vergauwen, L., Schroeder, A.L., Maho, W., Blackwell, B., Witter, H.,Blust, R., Ankley, G.T., Covaci, A., Villenueve, D.L., Knapen, D., 2016. Disruption of thyroid hormone balance after 2-mercaptobenzothiazole exposure causes swim bladder inflation impairment—part II: zebrafish. Aquat. Toxicol. 173:204-17.
Vergauwen, Lucia; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Maho, Walid; Stickens, Evelyn; Hagenaars, An; Blust, Ronny; Mayer, Philipp; Covaci, Adrian; Knapen, Dries. 2014. A high throughput passive dosing format for the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity test. Chemosphere. 139: 9-17.