API

Event: 1005

Key Event Title

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Reduced, Swimming performance

Short name

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Reduced, Swimming performance

Biological Context

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Level of Biological Organization
Individual



Key Event Components

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Process Object Action
aquatic locomotion decreased

Key Event Overview


AOPs Including This Key Event

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Stressors

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Taxonomic Applicability

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Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
zebrafish Danio rerio High NCBI
teleost fish teleost fish High NCBI
fathead minnow Pimephales promelas High NCBI

Life Stages

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Life stage Evidence
All life stages High

Sex Applicability

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Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description

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Adequate swimming performance in fish is essential for behaviour such as foraging, predator avoidance and reproduction.


How It Is Measured or Detected

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For fish larvae, automated observation and tracking systems are commercially available and increasingly used for measuring swimming performance including distance travelled, duration of movements, swimming speed, etc. This kind of measurements is often included in publications describing effects of chemicals in zebrafish larvae (Hagenaars et al., 2014; Stinckens et al., 2016; Vergauwen et al., 2015).

For juvenile and adult fish, measurements of swim performance vary. However, in some circumstances, a swim tunnel has been used to measure various data (Fu et al., 2013).


Domain of Applicability

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Taxonomic: Importance of swimming performance for natural behaviour is generally applicable to fish.

Life stage: Importance of swimming performance for natural behaviour is generally applicable across all life stages.

Sex: Importance of swimming performance for natural behaviour is generally applicable across sexes.


References

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Fu C, Cao ZD, Fu SJ. 2013. The effects of caudal fin loss and regeneration on the swimming performance of three cyprinid fish species with different swimming capactities. The Journal of Experimental Biology 216:3164-3174. doi:10.1242/jeb.084244

Hagenaars, A., Stinckens, E., Vergauwen, L., Bervoets, L., Knapen, D., 2014. PFOSaffects posterior swim bladder chamber inflation and swimming performanceof zebrafish larvae. Aquat. Toxicol. 157, 225–235.

Stinckens, E., Vergauwen, L., Schroeder, A.L., Maho, W., Blackwell, B., Witter, H.,Blust, R., Ankley, G.T., Covaci, A., Villenueve, D.L., Knapen, D., 2016. Disruption of thyroid hormone balance after 2-mercaptobenzothiazole exposure causes swim bladder inflation impairment—part II: zebrafish. Aquat. Toxicol. 173:204-17.

Vergauwen, Lucia; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Maho, Walid; Stickens, Evelyn; Hagenaars, An; Blust, Ronny; Mayer, Philipp; Covaci, Adrian; Knapen, Dries. 2014. A high throughput passive dosing format for the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity test. Chemosphere. 139: 9-17.