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Event: 1108

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

Abnormal, Role change within caste

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. More help
Abnormal, Role change within caste
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Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. More help
Level of Biological Organization

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Process Object Action
role abnormal

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE.Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
nAChR activation - colony loss 7 KeyEvent Carlie LaLone (send email) Open for comment. Do not cite
nAChR activation - colony loss 5 KeyEvent Carlie LaLone (send email) Open for comment. Do not cite
Nosema to role change to colony loss/failure KeyEvent Carlie LaLone (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KE. More help

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help

Text from LaLone et al. (2017) Weight of evidence evaluation of a network of adverse outcome pathways linking activaiton of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in honey bees to colony death. Science of the Total Environment 584-585, 751-775:

"Like most eusocial insects, honey bees exhibit age-based division of labor and progress from nurse to forager as they age (Seeley, 1982). This type of age-related behavioral change termed age polyethism, is a genomically, nutritionally, and hormonally controlled process (Ament et al., 2010; Cheng et al., 2015). Such behavior changes in adult worker bees occur in a predictable sequence as theymove fromcentrally located in-hive activities including cleaning brood cells (0–5 d old), to feeding brood, capping brood, trimming cappings, and attending the queen (2–11 d old), to peripherally located in-hive activities, such as grooming nest-mates, feeding nest-mates, ventilating the hive, producing wax and shaping comb cells, receiving and storing nectar, packing pollen, and processing nectar into honey and pollen into bee bread (11–20 d old), to outside activities, including guarding the hive and foraging (20+ d old) (Seeley, 1982). However, honey bees exhibit phenotypic plasticity whereby the rate of behavioral change is highly flexible, meaning that under different scenarios, based on colony needs, bees will accelerate or reverse their behavioral development. For example, to compensate for a loss of foragers, disease, or nutritional stress, bees will initiate precocious (early behavioral development) foraging (Cheng et al., 2015; Huang and Robinson, 1996). It is biologically plausible that early initiation of foraging could lead to a shortage of hive bees needed to tend to the brood, which could hinder development of the brood. In addition, precocious foraging is correlated with shorter lifespans. Therefore, bees that forage earlier tend to do so at the expense of their longevity which could impact overall colony resource acquisition and productivity (Woyciechowski and Moroń, 2009). However, the relationship may be complex given that with seasonal variation, food availability, predation pressures, and adverse weather conditions that promote greater in-hive activity, older foragers can reverse their behavior, regenerate hypopharyngeal glands, and assume roles within the hive (Huang and Robinson, 1996). Behavioral plasticity is driven, in part, by juvenile hormone (JH) and its interplay with Vtg, acting together in a feed-back loop to control the onset of labor tasks, such as foraging (Page et al., 2012). For example, high Vtg levels suppress JH, delaying onset of foraging behavior,whereas high JH suppresses Vtg, causing a decrease in nursing behavior (Page et al., 2012). Studies exploring drivers of precocious foraging, using both treatment with a JH analog and social manipulation of a single-cohort colony of 1 d old bees in the absence of older foragers, induced precocious foraging, demonstrating that both hormonal and social interactions play a role (Chang et al., 2015; Perry et al., 2015). Active foragers produce a pheromone, ethyl oleate, which is transferred to the hive bees during trophallaxis or oral food exchange, delaying the rate at which bees transition to foraging. Therefore, if the number of foragers diminishes, recruitment to foraging can be accelerated. Additionally, allatectomy (removal of the corpora allata glands that produce JH) led to the discovery that JH is involved in modulating the speed at which bees develop into foragers, but not in activation of foraging itself (Sullivan et al., 2003). However, studies using ribonucleic acid

interference (RNAi) to knockdown Vtg production have found the protein to have a prominent role in the initiation of honey bee foraging, causing an increase in JH titer and extreme precocious foraging (3 d old bees) (Guidugli et al., 2005; Marco Antonio et al., 2008). Vitellogenin is synthesized in fat body cells, released to the hemolymph (circulation), and taken up in developing oocytes (Corona et al., 2007). Mature honey bee queens, which lay ~1000 eggs/day, continuously synthesize Vtg at high levels, including during periods when egg laying ceases (Seehuus et al., 2006; Corona et al., 2007). However, in sterile worker bees, Vtg levels have been shown to change throughout their lives, with the highest levels observed in the long-lived winter bees and lowest in the short-lived summer foragers (Münch et al., 2015). In addition to the role Vtg plays as an egg yolk protein, it has a role in oxidative stress resistance (Corona et al., 2007; Seehuus et al., 2006; Amdam et al., 2004)."

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help

Text from Table 2 in LaLone et al. (2017) Weight of evidence evaluation of a network of adverse outcome pathways linking activaiton of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in honey bees to colony death. Science of the Total Environment 584-585, 751-775:

"• Age of first forage • Hypopharyngeal gland development in forage bees that revert to hive bees"

Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help


List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help

LaLone, C.A., Villeneuve, D.L., Wu-Smart, J., Milsk, R.Y., Sappington, K., Garber, K.V., Housenger, J. and Ankley, G.T., 2017. Weight of evidence evaluation of a network of adverse outcome pathways linking activation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in honey bees to colony death. STOTEN. 584-585, 751-775.

Seeley, T.D., 1982. Adaptive significance of the age polyethism schedule in honeybee colonies. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 11 (4), 287–293.

Ament, S.A., Wang, Y., Robinson, G.E., 2010. Nutritional regulation of division of labor in honey bees: toward a systems biology perspective. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Syst. Biol. Med. 2 (5), 566–576.

Cheng, L.H., Barron, A.B., Cheng, K., 2015. Effects of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene on rate of behavioural development, foraging performance and navigation in honey bees (Apis mellifera). J. Exp. Biol. 218, 1715–1724.

Huang, Z.Y., Robinson, G.E., 1996. Regulation of honey bee division of labor by colony age demography. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 39 (3), 147–158.

Woyciechowski, M., Moroń, D., 2009. Life expectancy and onset of foraging in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Insect. Soc. 56 (2), 193–201.

Page Jr., R.E., Rueppell, O., Amdam, G.V., 2012. Genetics of reproduction and regulation of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) social behavior. Annu. Rev. Genet. 46, 97–119.

Chang, L.H., Barron, A.B., Cheng, K., 2015. Effects of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene on rate of behavioural development, foraging performance and navigation in honey bees (Apis mellifera). J. Exp. Biol. 218 (11), 1715–1724.

Perry, C., Søvik, E., Myerscough, M.R., Barron, A.B., 2015. Rapid behavioral maturation accelerates failure of stressed honey bee colonies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112 (11), 3427–3432.

Sullivan, J.P., Fahrbach, S.E., Harrison, J.F., Capaldi, E.A., Fewell, J.H., Robinson, G.E., 2003. Juvenile hormone and division of labor in honey bee colonies: effects of allatectomy on flight behavior and metabolism. J. Exp. Biol. 206 (13), 2287–2296.

Guidugli, K.R., Nascimento, A.M., Amdam, G.V., Barchuk, A.R., Omholt, S., Simões, Z.L.P., Hartfelder, K., 2005. Vitellogenin regulates hormonal dynamics in the worker caste of a eusocial insect. FEBS Lett. 579, 4961–4965.

Marco Antonio, D.S., Guidugli-Lazzarini, K.R., do Nascimento, A.M., Simões, Z.L., Harfelder, K., 2008. RNAi-mediated silencing of vitellogenin gene function turns honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers into extremely precocious foragers. Naturwissenschaften 95 (10), 953–961.

Corona,M., Velarde, R.A., Remolina, S.,Moran-Lauter, A.,Wang, Y., Hughes, K.A., Robinson, G.E., 2007. Vitellogenin, juvenile hormone, insulin signaling, and queen honey bee longevity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 104 (17), 7128–7133.

Seehuus, S.C., Norberg, K., Gimsa, U., Krekling, T., Amdam, G.V., 2006. Reproductive protein protects functionally sterile honey bee workers from oxidative stress. PNAS 103 (4), 962–967.

Amdam, G.V., Simões, Z.L., Hagen, A., Norber, K., Schrøder, K., Mikkelsen, Ø., Kirkwood, T.B., Omholtk, S.W., 2004. Hormonal control of the yolk precursor vitellogenin regulates immune function and longevity in honeybees. Exp. Gerontol. 39 (5), 767–773.