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Event: 1389

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

Locomotor activity, decreased

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. More help
Locomotor activity, decreased
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Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. More help
Level of Biological Organization
Individual

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; https://aopwiki.org/info_pages/2/info_linked_pages/7#List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
Inhibition of CYP7B leads to decreased locomotor activity KeyEvent Florence Pagé-Larivière (send email) Not under active development

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Vertebrates Vertebrates NCBI

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KE. More help
Term Evidence
Mixed High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help

Vertebrate move for a variety of reasons including reproduction, search for food or suitable microhabitat, and escape predator. In birds, newt, and other vertebrates, locomotor activity is cyclic and follows the circadian and/or seasonal rhythm (Saper et al., 2005; Binkley et al., 1971; Chabot  and  Menaker,  1992).

  • Locomotor activity is elevated in quail under daylight and decreases at night, following a circadian cycle. It was shown in bird that locomotor activity was mainly related to maintenance of territory (Wada, 1981; Watson, 1970). 
  • In newt, locomotor activity is high during breeding season and night time (Nagai et al., 1998).
  • In salmon, the maximum locomotor activity is observed during homing migration where fishes swim against the water flow (Gowans et al., 2003).

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help

Locomotor activity is a measurement of distance per unit of time. Experiment design should take into account the normal seasonal and daily variation of locomotor activity.

To measure locomotor activity, animals can be placed individually in a water-filled aquarium (newts) marked with parallel lines to define sectors. Quantification of total number of lines crossed during a certain amount of time is then measured (Lowry et al., 2001; Moore et al., 1984).  

Birds can be put in a soundproof box with a telemetry system implanted to calculate their total distance during the experiment ( or in a box with wire-mesh floor and ceilings and photobeams activated when the animal break the beam (Levens et al., 2001; Tsutsui et al., 2008). 

Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help

Measurement of locomotor activity can be performed on any motile animal. 

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help

Gowans A. R. D., Armstrong J. D., Priede I. G. & Mckelvey S. (2003). Movements of Atlantic salmon migrating upstream through a fish-pass complex in Scotland. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 12, 177–189.

Lowry, C.A., Burke, K.A., Renner, K.J., Moore, F.L., and Orchinik, M. (2001). Rapid changes in monoamine levels following administration of corticotropin-releasing factor or corticosterone are localized in the dorsomedial hypothalamus. Horm Behav 39, 195-205.

Moore, F.L., Roberts, J., Bevers, J. (1984). Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) stimulates locomotor activity in intact and hypophysectomized newts (Amphibia). J Exp Zool 231, 331-333.

Nagai, K., T. Oishi. T. (1998). Behavioral rhythms of the Japanese newts, Cynops pyrrhogaster, under a semi-natural condition. Int. J. Biometeorol. 41: 105–112.

Levens N., Akins C.K. (2001). Cocaine induces conditioned place preference and increases locomotor activity in Japanese quail. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 68-1, 71-80

Tsutsui, K., Haraguchi, S., Fukada, Y., and Vaudry, H. (2013). Brain and pineal 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone stimulating locomotor activity: identification, mode of action and regulation of biosynthesis. Front Neuroendocrinol 34, 179-189.

Tsutsui, K., Inoue, K., Miyabara, H., Suzuki, S., Ogura, Y., and Haraguchi, S. (2008). 7Alpha-hydroxypregnenolone mediates melatonin action underlying diurnal locomotor rhythms. J Neurosci 28, 2158-2167.

Wada, M. (1981). Effects of photostimulation, castration, and testosterone replacement on daily patterns of calling and locomotor activity in Japanese quail. Horm Behav 15, 270-281.

Watson, A. (1970). Territorial and reproductive behaviour of red grouse. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 11, Suppl 11:13-14.