API

Event: 1390

Key Event Title

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Sexual behavior, decreased

Short name

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Sexual behavior, decreased

Biological Context

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Level of Biological Organization
Individual



Key Event Components

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Process Object Action

Key Event Overview


AOPs Including This Key Event

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Stressors

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Taxonomic Applicability

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Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Japanese quail Coturnix japonica NCBI
Cynops pyrrhogaster Cynops pyrrhogaster NCBI

Life Stages

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Life stage Evidence
Adult, reproductively mature

Sex Applicability

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Term Evidence
Male

Key Event Description

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Sexual behavior in male bird is characterized by components such as crowing, strutting, and mounting, whereas the newt exhibits a tail-vibrating behavior (Hutchison, 1978). In both species, sexual behavior varies on a daily (photoperiod) and seasonal (breeding) basis. A decrease in sexual behavior is defined by a reduction in the frequency of these typical behaviors.

 


How It Is Measured or Detected

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Since sexual behavior varies along the day and the season, timing is an important component of the measurement. Light exposure, endocrine disruptors and season should all be considered in the protocol design in order to limit the bias in the measurement.

Sexual behavior in male is measured in presence of a sexually receptive female. To limit the risk of bias induced by differences in female receptivity, it is important to repeat the experiment later/the day after with a different female for each male (Halldin et al., 1999).In bird, the frequency of chasing, pecking, head grabbing, and mounting for a X minutes observation can be measured (Halldin et al., 1999; Ogura et al., 2016). 

For newt, sexual behavior is characterized by a tail-vibrating behavior and can be measured by counting the frequency and incidence of this behavior during X minutes.  Incidence and frequency are expressed as the percentage of animals exhibiting the behavior and the mean number of times the behavior was recorded per test animal over the test period, respectively (Toyoda et al., 1983). 


Domain of Applicability

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This key event can be applied to any animal having sexual reproduction. It does not apply to asexual animals.


References

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Adkins, E. K. and N. T. Adler. 1972. Hormonal control of behavior in the Japanese quail. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.81:27-36.

Halldin, K., Berg, C., Brandt, I., and Brunstrom, B. (1999). Sexual behavior in Japanese quail as a test end point for endocrine disruption: effects of in ovo exposure to ethinylestradiol and diethylstilbestrol. Environ Health Perspect 107, 861-866.

Hutchison, R.E. (1978). Hormonal differentiation of sexual behavior in Japanese quail. Horm Behav 11, 363-387.

Ogura, Y., Haraguchi, S., Nagino, K., Ishikawa, K., Fukahori, Y., and Tsutsui, K. (2016). 7alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone regulates diurnal changes in sexual behavior of male quail. Gen Comp Endocrinol 227, 130-135.

Sachs, B.D. (1967). Photoperiodic control of the cloacal gland of the Japanese quail. Science 157, 201-203.

Toyoda, F., Ito, M., Tanaka, S., and Kikuyama, S. (1993). Hormonal induction of male courtship behavior in the Japanese newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. Horm Behav 27, 511-522.