API

Event: 1616

Key Event Title

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Malformation, cryptorchidism - maldescended testis

Short name

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Malformation, cryptorchidism

Biological Context

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Level of Biological Organization
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Process Object Action

Key Event Overview


AOPs Including This Key Event

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AOP Name Role of event in AOP
Cyp17A1 inhibition leads to undescended testes in mammals AdverseOutcome

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Key Event Description

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Undescended testis is a testicular disorder syndrome known as  cryptorchidism. Testis migration is a major event in male fetus development, as it will directly affect his reproductive health.

Cryptorchidism can defined itself as the insertion of the testis in another position than the scrotum. Although the events leading to this pathology occurred during development, cryptorchidism can only be defined after birth though clinical examination as palpation.

Cryptorchidism can be either uni- or bilateral and has been reported to increase in incidence over the decades (Denmark, UK, India…). The maldescended testis will experiment heat stress (37 against 33C outside the body) interfering with testicular physiology and development of germ cells into spermatogonia. Germ cells maturation failure will induce a non-reversible reduction in fertility power of the individual. Cryptorchidism is an established risk factor for infertility and is known to increase the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) 123

 

Remark: 

Cryptorchidism is the first AO of a larger list including raise in testicular cancer and germ cell tumor incidence, as well as reduced fertility due to impairment in germ cells maturation.


How It Is Measured or Detected

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Cryptorchidism is a birth defect that can be highlighted by a clinical examination. The aim of this palpation is to locate the gonad and determine its lowest position without causing painful traction on the spermatic cord. 4


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Regulatory Significance of the Adverse Outcome

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References

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1 Hutson J.M., Li R., Southwell B.R., Newgreen D., and Cousinery M. (2015) Regulation of testicular descent. Pediatric Surgery International, 31(4): 317-325. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00383-015-3673-4 

2 Boisen K.A., Kaleva M., Main K.M., Virtanen H.E., Haavisto A.M., Schmidt I.M., Chellakooty M., Damgaard I.N., Mau C., Reunanen M., Skakkebaek N.E. and Toppari J. (2004) Difference in prevalence of congenital cryptorchidism in infants between two Nordic countries. Lancet, 17;363(9417):1264-9 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(04)15998-9 

3 Acerini C.L., Miles H.L., Dunger D.B., Ong K.K. and Hughes I.A. (2009) The descriptive epidemiology of congenital and acquired cryptorchidism in a UK infant cohort. Archives of disease in childhood, 94(11):868-72 https://doi.org10.1136/adc.2008.150219 

4 Hutson J.M., et al. (2015) Cryptorchidism and Hypospadias. Endotexthttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279106/