Key Event Title
|Level of Biological Organization|
Key Event Components
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
|AOP Name||Role of event in AOP|
|Chronic ROS leading to human treatment-resistant gastric cancer||AdverseOutcome|
|Homo sapiens||Homo sapiens||High||NCBI|
|All life stages||High|
Key Event Description
Drug resistance is involved in EMT, which is an important phenomenon exhibiting the feature similar to cancer stem cells (CSCs) (Du & Shim, 2016).
EMT is involved in metastasis and therapy resistance (Smith & Bhowmick, 2016).
Diffuse-type gastric cancer which has a poor prognosis may be related to EMT (Tanabe, Aoyagi, Yokozaki, & Sasaki, 2014).
How It Is Measured or Detected
Cancer malignancy and EMT can be detected with biomarkers (Zeisberg & Neilson, 2009).
EMT can be detected as the increase level of the transcription factors, Zeb, Twist and Snail, related to the activation of EMT-related genes.
Domain of Applicability
Drug resistance occurs in Homo sapiens (Du & Shim, 2016).
Regulatory Significance of the Adverse Outcome
Cancer resistance is very important in the cancer treatment, since the cancer metastasis and recurrence are one of the main obstacles to treat cancer.
Du, B., & Shim, J. S. (2016). Targeting Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) to Overcome Drug Resistance in Cancer. Molecules, 21(7). doi:10.3390/molecules21070965
Smith, B. N., & Bhowmick, N. A. (2016). Role of EMT in Metastasis and Therapy Resistance. J Clin Med, 5(2). doi:10.3390/jcm5020017
Tanabe, S., Aoyagi, K., Yokozaki, H., & Sasaki, H. (2014). Gene expression signatures for identifying diffuse-type gastric cancer associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. International journal of oncology, 44(6), 1955-1970. doi:10.3892/ijo.2014.2387
Zeisberg, M., & Neilson, E. G. (2009). Biomarkers for epithelial-mesenchymal transitions. J Clin Invest, 119(6), 1429-1437. doi:10.1172/JCI36183