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Event: 1700

Key Event Title

The KE title should describe a discrete biological change that can be measured. It should generally define the biological object or process being measured and whether it is increased, decreased, or otherwise definably altered relative to a control state. For example “enzyme activity, decreased”, “hormone concentration, increased”, or “growth rate, decreased”, where the specific enzyme or hormone being measured is defined. More help

Impaired IL-1R1 signaling

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. The short name should be less than 80 characters in length. More help
Impaired IL-1R1 signaling

Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. Note, KEs should be defined within a particular level of biological organization. Only KERs should be used to transition from one level of organization to another. Selection of the level of biological organization defines which structured terms will be available to select when defining the Event Components (below). More help
Level of Biological Organization

Cell term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help
Cell term

Organ term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help
Organ term
immune system

Key Event Components

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.Because one of the aims of the AOP-KB is to facilitate de facto construction of AOP networks through the use of shared KE and KER elements, authors are also asked to define their KEs using a set of structured ontology terms (Event Components). In the absence of structured terms, the same KE can readily be defined using a number of synonymous titles (read by a computer as character strings). In order to make these synonymous KEs more machine-readable, KEs should also be defined by one or more “event components” consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 22 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; See List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling). The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signalling by that receptor).Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description. To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons. If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests. Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add. More help
Process Object Action

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
IL-1 inhibition MolecularInitiatingEvent Yutaka Kimura (send email) Open for citation & comment EAGMST Under Review


This is a structured field used to identify specific agents (generally chemicals) that can trigger the KE. Stressors identified in this field will be linked to the KE in a machine-readable manner, such that, for example, a stressor search would identify this as an event the stressor can trigger. NOTE: intermediate or downstream KEs in one AOP may function as MIEs in other AOPs, meaning that stressor information may be added to the KE description, even if it is a downstream KE in the pathway currently under development.Information concerning the stressors that may trigger an MIE can be defined using a combination of structured and unstructured (free-text) fields. For example, structured fields may be used to indicate specific chemicals for which there is evidence of an interaction relevant to this MIE. By linking the KE description to a structured chemical name, it will be increasingly possible to link the MIE to other sources of chemical data and information, enhancing searchability and inter-operability among different data-sources and knowledgebases. The free-text section “Evidence for perturbation of this MIE by stressor” can be used both to identify the supporting evidence for specific stressors triggering the MIE as well as to define broad chemical categories or other properties that classify the stressors able to trigger the MIE for which specific structured terms may not exist. More help

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) can be selected from an ontology. In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Homo sapiens Homo sapiens High NCBI
Mus musculus Mus musculus High NCBI
Rattus norvegicus Rattus norvegicus High NCBI

Life Stages

The structured ontology terms for life-stage are more comprehensive than those for taxa, but may still require further description/development and explanation in the free text section. More help
Life stage Evidence
All life stages High

Sex Applicability

No help message More help
Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. For example, the biological state being measured could be the activity of an enzyme, the expression of a gene or abundance of an mRNA transcript, the concentration of a hormone or protein, neuronal activity, heart rate, etc. The biological compartment may be a particular cell type, tissue, organ, fluid (e.g., plasma, cerebrospinal fluid), etc. The role in the biology could describe the reaction that an enzyme catalyses and the role of that reaction within a given metabolic pathway; the protein that a gene or mRNA transcript codes for and the function of that protein; the function of a hormone in a given target tissue, physiological function of an organ, etc. Careful attention should be taken to avoid reference to other KEs, KERs or AOPs. Only describe this KE as a single isolated measurable event/state. This will ensure that the KE is modular and can be used by other AOPs, thereby facilitating construction of AOP networks. More help
  1. Decreased IL-1 production

Decreased IL-1 production by macrophages or dendritic cells can be induced by suppressed IL-1β mRNA induction or suppressed maturation of pro-IL-1β. Dexamethasone is one of the representative drugs that significantly suppress IL-1β production from monocytes (Finch-Arietta and Cochran, 1991). Other than dexamethasone, the inhibition of various targets in different layers from the stimulation of PRPs or the receptors of proinflammatory cytokines lto the activation of NF-κB or the inhibition of posttranscriptional regulation of pro-IL-1β cause impaired IL-1R1 signaling. Among various PRPs, the signaling through TLR4 is best characterized. In addition, it is beyond the scope of this AOP to cover all signaling through each PRP. So, this AOP focuses on TLR4 signaling.


Binding of LPS to TLR4 and the coreceptor MD2 triggers interactions between the cytoplasmic TIR domain of TLR4 and TIR-containing adaptor proteins (Mal, MyD88, and TRAM). MyD88 binds IRAK4, which requires its kinase activity to bind the kinases IRAK1 and IRAK2 sequentially. The MyD88–IRAK complex also engages the ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 to make polyubiquitin chains that activate the IKK complex for NF-kB- and ERK-dependent gene transcription. Ubiquitin ligases cIAP1 and cIAP2 recruited to the TLR4 signaling complex regulate translocation of a subset of signaling components to the cytoplasm, where TAK1 activation initiates a MAPK cascade, p38a and JNK, which stimulates gene expression. TLR4 activated at the plasma membrane is endocytosed but can signal within the endosomal compartment via the adaptors TRAM and TRIF. The kinase and ubiquitin ligase combination of RIP1 and Peli1 interacts with TRIF to signal NF-kB activation, whereas TBK1 and TRAF3 stimulate IRF3-dependent transcription. Through these signaling cascades, NF‑κB, activator protein-1 (AP-1), cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB)/ activating transcription factor

(ATF), CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein b (c/EBP b), and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) are activated. These transcription factors induce the expression of various inflammatory cytokines e.g., IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6 and several chemokines (reviewed by Newton and Dixit (Newton and Dixit, 2012)).

Therefore, chemicals that affect the signaling pathway leading to the activation of these transcription factors are supposed to suppress IL-1β production. Among them, the chemical substances that affect NF-κB signaling have been investigated most thoroughly. Quite a few compounds have been reported to inhibit NF-κB signaling by several different mechanisms reviewed by Fuchs (Fuchs, 2010). The list of representative chemicals and their mechanism to inhibit NF-κB is shown in Table 1. In fact, dimethyl fumarate inhibits the activation of NF‐κB, resulting in a loss of proinflammatory cytokine production, distorted maturation and function of antigen‐presenting cells, and immune deviation of T helper cells (Th) from the type 1 (Th1) and type 17 (Th17) profiles to a type 2 (Th2) phenotype (McGuire et al., 2016; Peng et al., 2012). Several studies have shown intriguing pharmacologic effects associated with curcumin, which inhibits NF-κB expression by regulating NF-κB/IκB pathway and down-regulates expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα (Wang et al., 2018). Iguratimod, a methanesulfonanilide, that is a novel disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, inhibits NF-κB but not its inhibitor, IκBα (Mucke, 2012). Epigalocathechin gallate (EGCG) has been reported to inhibit NF-κB activation through inhibition of p65 phosphorylation (Wheeler et al., 2004).


Other than the inhibitors for NF-κB signaling, which can be stimulated by various stimulations other than TLR4 stimulation, there are signaling molecules that are specific to TLR4 signaling, such as TLR4, Mal, TRAM, Myd88, IRAK4, and IRAK1/2 (Vallabhapurapu and Karin, 2009). There are several chemicals that targe some of these molecules, an inhibitors of TLR4 such as TAK-242 (Matsunaga et al., 2011) and various IRAK4 inhibitors (Lee et al., 2017). IRAK4 has recently attracted attention as a therapeutic target for inflammation and tumor diseases.

Beside transcriptional regulation of IL-1b production, minocycline, and two prodrugs, pralnacasan (VX-740) and belnacasan (VX-765) that are orally absorbed and converted into the active principle, VRT-018858 and VRT-043198, respectively (Fenini et al., 2017) suppress IL-1 signaling by the inhibition of caspase-1 activation. Caspase-1 is an essential enzyme for maturation of pro- IL-1β and the secretion of mature IL-1β (Vincent and Mohr, 2007). Recently, it has been reported that cinnamicaldehyde suppresses serum IL-1β level in endotoxin poisoning mice (Xu et al., 2017).

  1. Blocking of binding of IL-1 to IL-1R1

IL-1α and IL-1β independently bind the type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1), which is ubiquitously expressed. IL-1Ra binds IL-1R but does not initiate IL-1 signal transduction (Dripps et al., 1991). Recombinant IL-1Ra (anakinra) is fully active in blocking the IL-1R1, and therefore, the biological activities of IL-1α and IL-1β. The binding of IL-1α and IL-1β to IL-1R1 can be suppressed by soluble IL-1R like rilonacept (Kapur and Bonk, 2009). The binding of IL-1β to IL-1R1 can be inhibited by anti-IL-1β antibody (anti-IL-1β antibody) (Church and McDermott, 2009).

How It Is Measured or Detected

One of the primary considerations in evaluating AOPs is the relevance and reliability of the methods with which the KEs can be measured. The aim of this section of the KE description is not to provide detailed protocols, but rather to capture, in a sentence or two, per method, the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements. Methods that can be used to detect or measure the biological state represented in the KE should be briefly described and/or cited. These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA).Key considerations regarding scientific confidence in the measurement approach include whether the assay is fit for purpose, whether it provides a direct or indirect measure of the biological state in question, whether it is repeatable and reproducible, and the extent to which it is accepted in the scientific and/or regulatory community. Information can be obtained from the OECD Test Guidelines website and the EURL ECVAM Database Service on Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation (DB-ALM). ?
  1. Real time polymerase chain reaction to measure IL-1a or IL-1b mRNA
  2. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect IL-1a or IL-1 b protein
  3. Competitive inhibition binding experiments using 125I-IL-1 a to type I IL-1R present on EL4 thymoma cells, 3T3 fibroblasts, hepatocytes, and Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing recombinant mouse type I IL-1R (McIntyre et al., 1991; Shuck et al., 1991).
  4. Measure the ability of the reagent to neutralize the bioactivity of human IL-1β on primary human fibroblasts in vitro(Alten et al., 2008)

Domain of Applicability

This free text section should be used to elaborate on the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided). While structured terms may be selected to define the taxonomic, life stage and sex applicability (see structured applicability terms, above) of the KE, the structured terms may not adequately reflect or capture the overall biological applicability domain (particularly with regard to taxa). Likewise, the structured terms do not provide an explanation or rationale for the selection. The free-text section on evidence for taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability can be used to elaborate on why the specific structured terms were selected, and provide supporting references and background information.  More help

Although sex differences in immune responses are well known (Klein and Flanagan, 2016), there is no reports regarding the sex difference in IL-1 production, IL-1 function or susceptibility to infection as adverse effect of IL-1 blocking agent. Age-dependent difference in IL-1 signaling is not known.

The IL1B gene is conserved in chimpanzee, rhesus monkey, dog, cow, mouse, rat, and frog (, and the Myd88 gene is conserved in human, chimpanzee, rhesus monkey, dog, cow, rat, chicken, zebrafish, mosquito, and frog (

These data suggest that the proposed AOP regarding inhibition of IL-1 signaling is not dependent on life stage, sex, age or species.

Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor

Overview for Molecular Initiating Event

When a specific MIE can be defined (i.e., the molecular target and nature of interaction is known), in addition to describing the biological state associated with the MIE, how it can be measured, and its taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability, it is useful to list stressors known to trigger the MIE and provide evidence supporting that initiation. This will often be a list of prototypical compounds demonstrated to interact with the target molecule in the manner detailed in the MIE description to initiate a given pathway (e.g., 2,3,7,8-TCDD as a prototypical AhR agonist; 17α-ethynyl estradiol as a prototypical ER agonist). Depending on the information available, this could also refer to chemical categories (i.e., groups of chemicals with defined structural features known to trigger the MIE). Known stressors should be included in the MIE description, but it is not expected to include a comprehensive list. Rather initially, stressors identified will be exemplary and the stressor list will be expanded over time. For more information on MIE, please see pages 32-33 in the User Handbook.

Dex inhibits IL-1β gene expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by blocking NF-κB/Rel and AP-1 activation(Jeon et al., 2000).

Dex suppresses LPS-induced gene expression of IL-1β in rat lung. (in vivo) (Qiu et al., 1997)

Dex inhibits the release of IL-1β by human leukocyte stimulated with Streptococcus pneumoniae stimulation (van Furth et al., 1995).

Treatment of peripheral blood monocytes with 2 mg/ml LPS potently increased IL-1β release (p= 0.001) and Dex (10 -7M) significantly reduced both resting and stimulated IL-1β release (p 0.009).) (Morand et al., 1993)

Dex effectively blocks the glutamine antagonist acivicin-induced expression of IL-1β mRNA by HL-60 leukemia cells (Weinberg et al., 1992).

LPS treatment induced a significant upregulation of the mRNA and release of IL-1β from retinal microglia. Minocycline inhibited its releases. Thus, minocycline might exert its antiinflammatory effect on microglia by inhibiting the expression and release of IL-1β (Wang et al., 2005).


Caspase-1 inhibition reduced the release of IL-1β in organotypic slices exposed to LPS+ATP. Administration of pralnacasan (intracerebroventricular, 50 μg) or belnacasan (intraperitoneal, 25–200 mg/kg) to rats blocked seizure-induced production of IL-1β in the hippocampus, and resulted in a twofold delay in seizure onset and 50% reduction in seizure duration (Ravizza et al., 2006).

Belnacasan, an orally active IL-1β converting enzyme/caspase-1 inhibitor, blocked IL-1β secretion with equal potency in LPS-stimulated cells from familial cold urticarial associated symdrome and control subjects (Stack et al., 2005).


In LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mice model, LPS induced inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-13 and IL-1β were significantly decreased by cinnamaldehyde (CA) (Huang and Wang, 2017).

The suppressing capacities of six cinnamaldehyde-related compounds were evaluated and compared by using the LPS-primed and ATP-activated macrophages. At concentrations of 25~100 mM, cinnamaldehyde and 2-methoxy cinnamaldehyde dose-dependently inhibited IL-1β secretion (Ho et al., 2018).

In vitro, CA decreased the levels of pro-IL-1β and IL-1β in cell culture supernatants, as well as the expression of NLRP3 and IL-1β mRNA in cells. In vivo, CA decreased IL-1β production in serum. Furthermore, CA suppressed LPS-induced NLRP3, p20, Pro-IL-1β, P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) and cathepsin B protein expression in lung, as well as the expression of NLRP3 and IL-1β mRNA (Xu et al., 2017).


IL-1 is known to mediates autoinflammatory syndrome, such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome, neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease and familial Mediterranean fever. Blocking of binding of IL-1 to IL-1R1 by anakinra, canakinumab, and rilonacept have been already used to treat these autoinflammatory syndrome associated with overactivation of IL-1 signaling (Quartier, 2011).


Various IRAK4 inhibitors are currently under the investigation on the possibility of clinical use for autoimmune disorders (Chaudhary et al., 2015).


List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide ( (OECD, 2015). More help

Alten, R., Gram, H., Joosten, L.A., van den Berg, W.B., Sieper, J., Wassenberg, S., Burmester, G., van Riel, P., Diaz-Lorente, M., Bruin, G.J., Woodworth, T.G., Rordorf, C., Batard, Y., Wright, A.M., Jung, T., 2008. The human anti-IL-1 beta monoclonal antibody ACZ885 is effective in joint inflammation models in mice and in a proof-of-concept study in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 10, R67.

Chaudhary, D., Robinson, S., Romero, D.L., 2015. Recent advances in the discovery of small molecule inhibitors of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) as a therapeutic target for inflammation and oncology disorders. J Med Chem 58, 96-110.

Church, L.D., McDermott, M.F., 2009. Canakinumab, a fully-human mAb against IL-1beta for the potential treatment of inflammatory disorders. Curr Opin Mol Ther 11, 81-89.

Dripps, D.J., Brandhuber, B.J., Thompson, R.C., Eisenberg, S.P., 1991. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist binds to the 80-kDa IL-1 receptor but does not initiate IL-1 signal transduction. J Biol Chem 266, 10331-10336.

Fenini, G., Contassot, E., French, L.E., 2017. Potential of IL-1, IL-18 and Inflammasome Inhibition for the Treatment of Inflammatory Skin Diseases. Front Pharmacol 8, 278.

Finch-Arietta, M.B., Cochran, F.R., 1991. Cytokine production in whole blood ex vivo. Agents Actions 34, 49-52.

Fuchs, O., 2010. Transcription factor NF-kappaB inhibitors as single therapeutic agents or in combination with classical chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Curr Mol Pharmacol 3, 98-122.

Ho, S.C., Chang, Y.H., Chang, K.S., 2018. Structural Moieties Required for Cinnamaldehyde-Related Compounds to Inhibit Canonical IL-1beta Secretion. Molecules 23.

Huang, H., Wang, Y., 2017. The protective effect of cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide induced acute lung injury in mice. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 63, 58-63.

Jeon, Y.J., Han, S.H., Lee, Y.W., Lee, M., Yang, K.H., Kim, H.M., 2000. Dexamethasone inhibits IL-1 beta gene expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by blocking NF-kappa B/Rel and AP-1 activation. Immunopharmacology 48, 173-183.

Kapur, S., Bonk, M.E., 2009. Rilonacept (arcalyst), an interleukin-1 trap for the treatment of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes. P t 34, 138-141.

Klein, S.L., Flanagan, K.L., 2016. Sex differences in immune responses. Nat Rev Immunol 16, 626-638.

Lee, K.L., Ambler, C.M., Anderson, D.R., Boscoe, B.P., Bree, A.G., Brodfuehrer, J.I., Chang, J.S., Choi, C., Chung, S., Curran, K.J., Day, J.E., Dehnhardt, C.M., Dower, K., Drozda, S.E., Frisbie, R.K., Gavrin, L.K., Goldberg, J.A., Han, S., Hegen, M., Hepworth, D., Hope, H.R., Kamtekar, S., Kilty, I.C., Lee, A., Lin, L.L., Lovering, F.E., Lowe, M.D., Mathias, J.P., Morgan, H.M., Murphy, E.A., Papaioannou, N., Patny, A., Pierce, B.S., Rao, V.R., Saiah, E., Samardjiev, I.J., Samas, B.M., Shen, M.W.H., Shin, J.H., Soutter, H.H., Strohbach, J.W., Symanowicz, P.T., Thomason, J.R., Trzupek, J.D., Vargas, R., Vincent, F., Yan, J., Zapf, C.W., Wright, S.W., 2017. Discovery of Clinical Candidate 1-{[(2S,3S,4S)-3-Ethyl-4-fluoro-5-oxopyrrolidin-2-yl]methoxy}-7-methoxyisoquinoli ne-6-carboxamide (PF-06650833), a Potent, Selective Inhibitor of Interleukin-1 Receptor Associated Kinase 4 (IRAK4), by Fragment-Based Drug Design. J Med Chem 60, 5521-5542.

Matsunaga, N., Tsuchimori, N., Matsumoto, T., Ii, M., 2011. TAK-242 (resatorvid), a small-molecule inhibitor of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling, binds selectively to TLR4 and interferes with interactions between TLR4 and its adaptor molecules. Mol Pharmacol 79, 34-41.

McGuire, V.A., Ruiz-Zorrilla Diez, T., Emmerich, C.H., Strickson, S., Ritorto, M.S., Sutavani, R.V., Weibeta, A., Houslay, K.F., Knebel, A., Meakin, P.J., Phair, I.R., Ashford, M.L., Trost, M., Arthur, J.S., 2016. Dimethyl fumarate blocks pro-inflammatory cytokine production via inhibition of TLR induced M1 and K63 ubiquitin chain formation. Sci Rep 6, 31159.

McIntyre, K.W., Stepan, G.J., Kolinsky, K.D., Benjamin, W.R., Plocinski, J.M., Kaffka, K.L., Campen, C.A., Chizzonite, R.A., Kilian, P.L., 1991. Inhibition of interleukin 1 (IL-1) binding and bioactivity in vitro and modulation of acute inflammation in vivo by IL-1 receptor antagonist and anti-IL-1 receptor monoclonal antibody. J Exp Med 173, 931-939.

Morand, E.F., Rickard, D., Goulding, N.J., 1993. Lack of involvement of lipocortin 1 in dexamethasone suppression of IL-1 release. Mediators Inflamm 2, 49-52.

Mucke, H.A., 2012. Iguratimod: a new disease-modifying antirheumatic drug. Drugs Today (Barc) 48, 577-586.

Newton, K., Dixit, V.M., 2012. Signaling in innate immunity and inflammation. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 4.

Peng, H., Guerau-de-Arellano, M., Mehta, V.B., Yang, Y., Huss, D.J., Papenfuss, T.L., Lovett-Racke, A.E., Racke, M.K., 2012. Dimethyl fumarate inhibits dendritic cell maturation via nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and mitogen stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1) signaling. J Biol Chem 287, 28017-28026.

Qiu, H.B., Pan, J.Q., Zhao, Y.Q., Chen, D.C., 1997. Effects of dexamethasone and ibuprofen on LPS-induced gene expression of TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, and MIP-1 alpha in rat lung. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao 18, 165-168.

Quartier, P., 2011. Interleukin-1 antagonists in the treatment of autoinflammatory syndromes, including cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome. Open Access Rheumatol 3, 9-18.

Ravizza, T., Lucas, S.M., Balosso, S., Bernardino, L., Ku, G., Noe, F., Malva, J., Randle, J.C., Allan, S., Vezzani, A., 2006. Inactivation of caspase-1 in rodent brain: a novel anticonvulsive strategy. Epilepsia 47, 1160-1168.

Shuck, M.E., Eessalu, T.E., Tracey, D.E., Bienkowski, M.J., 1991. Cloning, heterologous expression and characterization of murine interleukin 1 receptor antagonist protein. Eur J Immunol 21, 2775-2780.

Stack, J.H., Beaumont, K., Larsen, P.D., Straley, K.S., Henkel, G.W., Randle, J.C., Hoffman, H.M., 2005. IL-converting enzyme/caspase-1 inhibitor VX-765 blocks the hypersensitive response to an inflammatory stimulus in monocytes from familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome patients. J Immunol 175, 2630-2634.

Vallabhapurapu, S., Karin, M., 2009. Regulation and function of NF-kappaB transcription factors in the immune system. Annu Rev Immunol 27, 693-733.

van Furth, A.M., Seijmonsbergen, E.M., Langermans, J.A., van der Meide, P.H., van Furth, R., 1995. Effect of xanthine derivates and dexamethasone on Streptococcus pneumoniae-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and IL-10 by human leukocytes. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2, 689-692.

Vincent, J.A., Mohr, S., 2007. Inhibition of caspase-1/interleukin-1beta signaling prevents degeneration of retinal capillaries in diabetes and galactosemia. Diabetes 56, 224-230.

Wang, A.L., Yu, A.C., Lau, L.T., Lee, C., Wu le, M., Zhu, X., Tso, M.O., 2005. Minocycline inhibits LPS-induced retinal microglia activation. Neurochem Int 47, 152-158.

Wang, Y., Tang, Q., Duan, P., Yang, L., 2018. Curcumin as a therapeutic agent for blocking NF-kappaB activation in ulcerative colitis. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 40, 476-482.

Weinberg, J.B., Mason, S.N., Wortham, T.S., 1992. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in HL-60 leukemia cells by pentoxifylline and dexamethasone: dissociation of acivicin-induced TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA expression from acivicin-induced monocytoid differentiation. Blood 79, 3337-3343.

Wheeler, D.S., Catravas, J.D., Odoms, K., Denenberg, A., Malhotra, V., Wong, H.R., 2004. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a green tea-derived polyphenol, inhibits IL-1 beta-dependent proinflammatory signal transduction in cultured respiratory epithelial cells. J Nutr 134, 1039-1044.

Xu, F., Wang, F., Wen, T., Sang, W., Wang, D., Zeng, N., 2017. Inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome: a new protective mechanism of cinnamaldehyde in endotoxin poisoning of mice. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 39, 296-304.