To the extent possible under law, AOP-Wiki has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to KE:1901

Event: 1901

Key Event Title

The KE title should describe a discrete biological change that can be measured. It should generally define the biological object or process being measured and whether it is increased, decreased, or otherwise definably altered relative to a control state. For example “enzyme activity, decreased”, “hormone concentration, increased”, or “growth rate, decreased”, where the specific enzyme or hormone being measured is defined. More help

Interferon-I antiviral response, antagonized

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. The short name should be less than 80 characters in length. More help
IFN-I response, antagonized

Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. Note, KEs should be defined within a particular level of biological organization. Only KERs should be used to transition from one level of organization to another. Selection of the level of biological organization defines which structured terms will be available to select when defining the Event Components (below). More help
Level of Biological Organization
Cellular

Cell term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help
Cell term
cell

Organ term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help
Organ term
organ

Key Event Components

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.Because one of the aims of the AOP-KB is to facilitate de facto construction of AOP networks through the use of shared KE and KER elements, authors are also asked to define their KEs using a set of structured ontology terms (Event Components). In the absence of structured terms, the same KE can readily be defined using a number of synonymous titles (read by a computer as character strings). In order to make these synonymous KEs more machine-readable, KEs should also be defined by one or more “event components” consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 22 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; See List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling). The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signalling by that receptor).Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description. To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons. If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests. Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add. More help
Process Object Action
type I interferon signaling pathway signalling molecule decreased
cellular response to type I interferon type I interferon receptor complex decreased

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help

Stressors

This is a structured field used to identify specific agents (generally chemicals) that can trigger the KE. Stressors identified in this field will be linked to the KE in a machine-readable manner, such that, for example, a stressor search would identify this as an event the stressor can trigger. NOTE: intermediate or downstream KEs in one AOP may function as MIEs in other AOPs, meaning that stressor information may be added to the KE description, even if it is a downstream KE in the pathway currently under development.Information concerning the stressors that may trigger an MIE can be defined using a combination of structured and unstructured (free-text) fields. For example, structured fields may be used to indicate specific chemicals for which there is evidence of an interaction relevant to this MIE. By linking the KE description to a structured chemical name, it will be increasingly possible to link the MIE to other sources of chemical data and information, enhancing searchability and inter-operability among different data-sources and knowledgebases. The free-text section “Evidence for perturbation of this MIE by stressor” can be used both to identify the supporting evidence for specific stressors triggering the MIE as well as to define broad chemical categories or other properties that classify the stressors able to trigger the MIE for which specific structured terms may not exist. More help

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) can be selected from an ontology. In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
humans Homo sapiens High NCBI
mink Mustela lutreola High NCBI
cat Felis catus High NCBI
rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta High NCBI
dog Canis lupus familiaris Moderate NCBI

Life Stages

The structured ontology terms for life-stage are more comprehensive than those for taxa, but may still require further description/development and explanation in the free text section. More help
Life stage Evidence
All life stages High

Sex Applicability

The authors must select from one of the following: Male, female, mixed, asexual, third gender, hermaphrodite, or unspecific. More help
Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. For example, the biological state being measured could be the activity of an enzyme, the expression of a gene or abundance of an mRNA transcript, the concentration of a hormone or protein, neuronal activity, heart rate, etc. The biological compartment may be a particular cell type, tissue, organ, fluid (e.g., plasma, cerebrospinal fluid), etc. The role in the biology could describe the reaction that an enzyme catalyses and the role of that reaction within a given metabolic pathway; the protein that a gene or mRNA transcript codes for and the function of that protein; the function of a hormone in a given target tissue, physiological function of an organ, etc. Careful attention should be taken to avoid reference to other KEs, KERs or AOPs. Only describe this KE as a single isolated measurable event/state. This will ensure that the KE is modular and can be used by other AOPs, thereby facilitating construction of AOP networks. More help

SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped virus with a single-stranded RNA genome of ~30 kb, sequence orientation in a 5’ to 3’ direction typical of positive sense and reflective of the resulting mRNA (Kim et al. 2020). The SARS-CoV-2 genome contains a 5’-untranslated region (UTR; 265 bp), ORF1ab (21,289 bp) holding two overlapping open reading frames (13,217 bp and 21,289 bp, respectively) that encode two polyproteins (Kim et al. 2020; O’Leary et al. 2020). Viral transcription and replication is explained in depth in KE 1847. Briefly, the first event upon cell entry is the primary translation of the ORF1a and ORF1b genomic RNA to produce non-structural proteins (NSPs). The ORF1a produces polypeptide 1a (pp1a, 440–500 kDa) that is cleaved into NSP-1 through NSP-11. A -1-ribosome frameshift occurs immediately upstream of the ORF1a stop codon, to allow translation through ORF1b, yielding 740–810 kDa polypeptide pp1ab, which is cleaved into 15 NSPs (duplications of NSP1-11 and five additional proteins, NSP12-16). Viral proteases NSP3 and NSP5 cleave the polypeptides through domains functioning as a papain-like protease and a 3C-like protease, respectively (Kim et al. 2020). The NSPs, structural proteins, and accessory proteins are encoded by 10 ORFs in the SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome. They may have multiple functions during viral replication as well as in evasion of the host innate immune response, thus augmenting viral replication and spread (Amor et al. 2020). Extensive protein-protein interaction (Gordon et al. 2020) and viral protein-host RNA interaction networks have been demonstrated between the viral NSPs and accessory proteins and host molecules. 

This key event is focused on the specific viral:host protein interactions within the infected cell that are involved in the IFN-I antiviral response pathways. IFN-I is the main component of the innate immune system that is suppressed by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus early in infection. The primary form of host intracellular virus surveillance detects viral components to induce an immediate systemic type I interferon (IFN) response. Cellular RNA sensors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2 detect the presence of viral RNAs and promote nuclear translocation of the transcription factor IRF3, leading to transcription, translation, and secretion of IFN-α and IFN-β. This in turn leads to interaction with the IFN receptor (IFNAR), phosphorylation of STAT1 and 2, and transcription and translation of hundreds of antiviral genes (Quarleri and Delpino, 2021).

Interactions between SARS-CoV-2 proteins and human RNAs thwart the IFN response upon infection: NSP1 binds to 40S ribosomal RNA in the mRNA entry channel of the ribosome to inhibit host mRNA translation; NSP8 and NSP9 displace signal recognition particle proteins (SRP54, 27 and 19) to bind to the 7SL RNA and block protein trafficking to the cell membrane (Banerjee et al. 2020; Gordon et al. 2020). Xia et al. (2020) found that NSP6 and NSP13 antagonize IFN-I production via distinct mechanisms: NSP6 binds TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) to suppress interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) phosphorylation, and NSP13 binds and blocks TBK1 phosphorylation. NSP14 induces lysosomal degradation of type 1 IFNAR to prevent STAT activation (Hayn et al. 2021). ORF6 hijacks KPNA2 to block IRF3, and Nup98/RAE1 to block STAT nuclear import, to silence IFN-I gene expression (Xia and Shi, 2020). ORF7a suppresses STAT2 phosphorylation and ORF7b suppresses STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation to block ISGF3 complex formation with IRF9 (Xia and Shi, 2020). ORF8 interacts and downregulates MHC-I (Zhang et al 2020), and has been reported to block INFβ expression, but the mechanism has not been identified (Rashid et al. 2021; Li et al. 2020). ORF9b antagonizes Type I Interferons by targeting multiple components of RIG-I/MDA-5-MAVS, TOMM70, NEMO and cGAS-STING signalling (Han et al. 2020; Jiang et al. 2020; Wu et al. 2021; Gordon et al 2020).

Following is a table of the current state of knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 protein putative functions in relation to IFN-I antiviral response antagonism.

Gene

Protein

Function

Role in early innate immune evasion

ORF1a

NSP1

NSP1 antagonizes interferon induction to suppress host antiviral response.

DNA Polymerase Alpha Complex: Regulates the activation of IFN-I through cytosolic RNA-DNA synthesis (POLA1/2-PRIM1/2) and primes DNA replication in the nucleus (Gordon et al. 2020; Chaudhuri et al. 2020). Can also inhibit host gene expression by binding to ribosomes and modifying host mRNAs (Shi et al. 2020; Schubert et al. 2020; Thoms et al. 2020).

 

NSP2

While not essential for viral replication, deletion of NSP2 diminishes viral growth and RNA synthesis

Translation repression through binding GIGYF2and EIF4E2 (4EHP) (Gupta et al. 2021)

NSP3

Papain-like protease (Plpro); Cleaves the ORF1a and 1ab polypeptides

Suppresses IFN-I: Cleaves IRF3 (Moustaqil et al. 2021); binds/cleaves ISG15 (Rui et al. 2021; Shin et al. 2020; Liu et al. 2021; Klemm et al. 2020)

NSP5

3C-like protease (3CLpro); Cleaves the ORF1a and 1ab polypeptides

Binds STING (Rui et al. 2021)

 

NSP6

Limits autophagosome expansion

Suppresses IFN-I expression: Binds TBK-1 to supress IRF3 phosphorylation (Xia et al. 2020; Quarleri and Delpino, 2021)

NSP7

In complex with NSP8 forms primase as part of multimeric RNA-dependent RNA replicase (RdRp)

NSP8

Replication complex with NSP7, NSP9 and NSP12

Binds SRP72/54/19 (Gordon et al. 2020) and 7SL RNA to block IFN membrane transport (Banerjee et al. 2020)

NSP9

Replication complex with NSP7, NSP8 and NSP12

Binds SRP and 7SL RNA with NSP8 to block IFN membrane transport (Banerjee et al. 2020)

ORF1b

NSP13

Helicase and triphosphatase that initiates the first step in viral mRNA capping.

Binds TBK1 (Xia et al. 2020)

NSP14

Induces lysosomal degradation of IFNAR1 (Hayn et al. 2021)

ORF2

Spike (S)

ACE2 interaction, cell entry

 

ORF3a

ORF3a

Interacts with M, S, E and 7a; form viroporins; immune evasion

Binds STING (Rui et al 2021)

ORF4

Envelope (E)

Viral assembly and budding

 

ORF5

Membrane (M)

Viral assembly

Interacts with RIG-I and MAVS sensors of viral RNA (Fu et al 2020)

ORF6

ORF6

Viral pathogenesis and virulence; interacts with ORF8; promotes RNA polymerase activity

Hijacks the nuclear importin Karyopherin a 2 (KPNA2) to block IRF3 (Xia and Shi, 2020) and Nup98/RAE1 to block STAT nuclear import (Miorin et al. 2020; Kato et al. 2020), leading to the silence of downstream ISGs

ORF7a

ORF7a

Interacts with S, ORF3a; immune evasion

Suppresses STAT2 phosphorylation to block IFN-I response (Xia and Shi, 2020).

ORF7b

ORF7b

Structural component of virion

Suppresses STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation to block IFN-I response (Xia and Shi, 2020)

ORF8

ORF8

Immune evasion

Interacts and downregulates MHC-I (Zhang et al. 2020).  May inhibit type I interferon (IFN-β) and interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) (Rashid et al. 2020; Li et al. 2020)

ORF9

Nucleocapsid (N)

Stabilizes viral RNA

Attenuates stress granule formation: G3BP1/2 (Chen et al. 2020; Cascarina et al. 2020); G3BP1 also interacts with RIG-I (Kim et al. 2019) and STAT1/2 (Mu et al. 2020)

ORF9b

ORF9b

Immune evasion

Membrane protein antagonizes Type I Interferons by targeting multiple components of RIG-I/MDA-5-MAVS, TOMM70, NEMO, and cGAS-STING signaling pathways (Fu et al. 2020; Chen et al. 2020; Han et al. 2020; Jiang et al. 2020; Wu et al. 2021; Gordon et al 2020)

How It Is Measured or Detected

One of the primary considerations in evaluating AOPs is the relevance and reliability of the methods with which the KEs can be measured. The aim of this section of the KE description is not to provide detailed protocols, but rather to capture, in a sentence or two, per method, the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements. Methods that can be used to detect or measure the biological state represented in the KE should be briefly described and/or cited. These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA).Key considerations regarding scientific confidence in the measurement approach include whether the assay is fit for purpose, whether it provides a direct or indirect measure of the biological state in question, whether it is repeatable and reproducible, and the extent to which it is accepted in the scientific and/or regulatory community. Information can be obtained from the OECD Test Guidelines website and the EURL ECVAM Database Service on Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation (DB-ALM). ?

Detection of IFN-I suppression involves measuring gene promoter/transcription activation (luciferase assays), gene up/down regulation (quantitative PCR), protein-protein interaction (immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting) or in-situ co-location of viral and host proteins (immunofluorescent or confocal microscopy) in cell culture. Examples of methods used include the following:

Interferon I decrease (Xia et al. 2020):

  • IFN-I production and signaling luciferase reporter assays
  • Co-immunoprecipitation and western blot
  • Indirect immunofluorescence assays
  • DNA assembly and RNA transcription of a luciferase replicon for SARS-CoV-2
  • Replicon RNA electroporation and luciferase reporter assay

SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b inhibits RIG-I-MAVS antiviral signaling (Wu et al. 2021)

  • Viral- and host-protein-specific antibodies
  • Immunoprecipitation
  • Immunofluorescent microscopy
  • Dual-luciferase reporter assays
  • Fluorescence quantification immunoblotting

SARS-CoV-2-Human Protein-Protein Interaction Map (Gordon et al. 2020)

  • Cloning and expression of viral proteins via plasmid transfection into HEK293T cell line
  • Protein affinity purification using MagStrep beads with detection by anti-strep western blot of cell lysate
  • Global analysis of SARS-CoV-2 host interacting proteins using affinity purification-mass spectrometry

Domain of Applicability

This free text section should be used to elaborate on the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided). While structured terms may be selected to define the taxonomic, life stage and sex applicability (see structured applicability terms, above) of the KE, the structured terms may not adequately reflect or capture the overall biological applicability domain (particularly with regard to taxa). Likewise, the structured terms do not provide an explanation or rationale for the selection. The free-text section on evidence for taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability can be used to elaborate on why the specific structured terms were selected, and provide supporting references and background information.  More help

Broad mammalian host range based on spike protein tropism for and binding to ACE2 (Conceicao et al. 2020; Wu et al. 2020) and cross-species ACE2 structural analysis (Damas et al. 2020). Some literature found on non-human hosts indicates that NSPs and accessory proteins can interact in a similar manner with bird (chicken) and other mammal proteins in the IFN-I pathway (Moustaqil et al. 2021; Rui et al. 2021).

Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide (https://www.oecd.org/about/publishing/OECD-Style-Guide-Third-Edition.pdf) (OECD, 2015). More help

Amor et al. 2020. Innate immunity during SARS-CoV-2: evasion strategies and activation trigger hypoxia and vascular damage. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 202: 193–209. doi: 10.1111/cei.13523

Andres et al. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 ORF9c Is a Membrane-Associated Protein that Suppresses Antiviral Responses in Cells. bioRxiv preprint doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.18.256776

Banerjee et al. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 disrupts splicing, translation, and protein trafficking to supress host defenses. Cell 183, 1325–1339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.10.004

Cascarina and Ross, 2020. A proposed role for the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein in the formation and regulation of biomolecular condensates. The FASEB Journal, 34:9832–9842. DOI: 10.1096/fj.202001351

Chaudhuri, A. 2021. Comparative analysis of non-structural protein 1 of SARS-CoV2 with SARS-CoV1 and MERS-CoV: An in-silico study. Journal of Molecular Structure, Volume 1243, 130854, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2021.130854.

Chen et al. 2021. SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Protein Interacts with RIG-I and Represses RIG-Mediated IFN-β Production. Viruses. 13(1):47. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010047

Conceicao et al. 2020. The SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein has a broad tropism for mammalian ACE2 proteins. PLoS Biol 18(12): e3001016. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001016

Damas et al. 2020. Broad host range of SARS-CoV-2 predicted by comparative and structural analysis of ACE2 in vertebrates. PNAS vol. 117 no. 36:22311–22322 www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.2010146117 

Fu et al. 2021. SARS-CoV-2 membrane glycoprotein M antagonizes the MAVS-mediated innate antiviral response. Cell Mol Immunol 18: 613–620. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00571-x

Gordon et al. 2020. A SARS-CoV-2 protein interaction map reveals targets for drug repurposing. Nature 483:459-473. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2286-9

Gupta et al. 2021. CryoEM and AI reveal a structure of SARS-CoV-2 Nsp2, a multifunctional protein involved in key host processes. bioRxiv 2021.05.10.443524; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.05.10.443524

Han et al. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b Antagonizes Type I and III Interferons by Targeting Multiple Components of RIG-I/MDA-5-MAVS, TLR3-TRIF, and cGAS-STING Signaling Pathways. bioRX https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.16.252973

Hayn et al. 2021. Systematic functional analysis of SARS-CoV-2 proteins uncovers viral innate immune antagonists and remaining vulnerabilities. Cell Reports 35, 109126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109126

Jiang et al. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 Orf9b suppresses type I interferon responses by targeting TOM70. Cellular & Molecular Immunology 17:998–1000; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-0514-8

Kato et al. 2021. Overexpression of SARS-CoV-2 protein ORF6 dislocates RAE1 and NUP98 from the nuclear pore complex. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 536:59-66 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.11.115

Kim et al. 2019. The stress granule protein G3BP1 binds viral dsRNA and RIG-I to enhance interferon-β response. J. Biol. Chem. 294(16): 6430–6438. DOI 10.1074/jbc.RA118.005868

Kim et al. 2020. The Architecture of SARS-CoV-2 Transcriptome. Cell 181, 914–921. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.011

Li et al. 2020. The ORF6, ORF8 and nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-CoV-2 inhibit type I interferon signaling pathway. Virus Research vol. 286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198074

Liu et al. 2021. ISG15-dependent activation of the sensor MDA5 is antagonized by the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease to evade host innate immunity. Nature Microbiol 6: 467–478. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-021-00884-1

Moustaqil et al. 2021. SARS-CoV-2 proteases PLpro and 3CLpro cleave IRF3 and critical modulators of inflammatory pathways (NLRP12 and TAB1): implications for disease presentation across species, Emerging Microbes & Infections, 10:1, 178-195. https://doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1870414

Mu et al. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 N protein antagonizes type I interferon signaling by suppressing phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT1 and STAT2. Cell Discov 6, 65. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-00208-3

O’Leary et al. 2020 Unpacking Pandora from Its Box: Deciphering the Molecular Basis of the SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 386. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010386

Quarleri and Delpino, 2020. Type I and III IFN-mediated antiviral actions counteracted by SARS-CoV-2 proteins and host inherited factors. Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews, 58: 55-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cytogfr.2021.01.003

Rashid et al. The ORF8 protein of SARS-CoV-2 induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and mediated immune evasion by antagonizing production of interferon beta. Virus Research 296, 198350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198350

Ren et al. 2020. The ORF3a protein of SARS-CoV-2 induces apoptosis in cells. Cellular & Molecular Immunology 17:881–883; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-0485-9

Rui et al. 2021. Unique and complementary suppression of cGAS-STING and RNA sensing-triggered innate immune responses by SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Sig Transduct Target Ther 6, 123. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-021-00515-5

Schubert et al. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 Nsp1 binds the ribosomal mRNA channel to inhibit translation. Nature Structural & Molecular Bio. 27:959-966. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41594-020-0511-8

Shin et al. 2020. Papain-like protease regulates SARS-CoV-2 viral spread and innate immunity. Nature 587: 657–662. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2601-5

Thoms et al. 2020. Structural basis for translational shutdown and immune evasion by the Nsp1 protein of SARS-CoV-2. Science 369(6508): 1249-1255. DOI: 10.1126/science.abc8665

Wu et al. 2021. SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b inhibits RIG-I-MAVS antiviral signaling by interrupting K63-linked ubiquitination of NEMO. Cell Reports 34, 108761. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108761

Wu et al. 2020. Broad host range of SARS-CoV-2 and the molecular basis for SARS-CoV-2 binding to cat ACE2. Cell Discovery 6:68. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-00210-9

Xia et al. 2020. Evasion of Type I Interferon by SARS-CoV-2. Cell Reports 33, 108234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108234

Xia and Shi, 2020. Antagonism of Type I Interferon by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research v.40, no. 12 DOI:10.1089/jir.2020.0214

Zhang et al. 2020. The ORF8 Protein of SARS-CoV-2 Mediates Immune Evasion through Potently Downregulating MHC-I. bioRxiv preprint doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.24.111823