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Event: 39

Key Event Title

The KE title should describe a discrete biological change that can be measured. It should generally define the biological object or process being measured and whether it is increased, decreased, or otherwise definably altered relative to a control state. For example “enzyme activity, decreased”, “hormone concentration, increased”, or “growth rate, decreased”, where the specific enzyme or hormone being measured is defined. More help

Increased Cholinergic Signaling

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. The short name should be less than 80 characters in length. More help
Increased Cholinergic Signaling

Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. Note, KEs should be defined within a particular level of biological organization. Only KERs should be used to transition from one level of organization to another. Selection of the level of biological organization defines which structured terms will be available to select when defining the Event Components (below). More help

Organ term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help
Organ term
nervous system

Key Event Components

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.Because one of the aims of the AOP-KB is to facilitate de facto construction of AOP networks through the use of shared KE and KER elements, authors are also asked to define their KEs using a set of structured ontology terms (Event Components). In the absence of structured terms, the same KE can readily be defined using a number of synonymous titles (read by a computer as character strings). In order to make these synonymous KEs more machine-readable, KEs should also be defined by one or more “event components” consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 22 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; See List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling). The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signalling by that receptor).Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description. To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons. If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests. Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add. More help
Process Object Action
ataxia increased
hyperactivity increased
paralysis increased

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
AChE inhibition - acute mortality KeyEvent Dan Villeneuve (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome Under Development
AChE inhibition - acute mortality via predation KeyEvent Kristie Sullivan (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite


This is a structured field used to identify specific agents (generally chemicals) that can trigger the KE. Stressors identified in this field will be linked to the KE in a machine-readable manner, such that, for example, a stressor search would identify this as an event the stressor can trigger. NOTE: intermediate or downstream KEs in one AOP may function as MIEs in other AOPs, meaning that stressor information may be added to the KE description, even if it is a downstream KE in the pathway currently under development.Information concerning the stressors that may trigger an MIE can be defined using a combination of structured and unstructured (free-text) fields. For example, structured fields may be used to indicate specific chemicals for which there is evidence of an interaction relevant to this MIE. By linking the KE description to a structured chemical name, it will be increasingly possible to link the MIE to other sources of chemical data and information, enhancing searchability and inter-operability among different data-sources and knowledgebases. The free-text section “Evidence for perturbation of this MIE by stressor” can be used both to identify the supporting evidence for specific stressors triggering the MIE as well as to define broad chemical categories or other properties that classify the stressors able to trigger the MIE for which specific structured terms may not exist. More help

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) can be selected from an ontology. In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help

Life Stages

The structured ontology terms for life-stage are more comprehensive than those for taxa, but may still require further description/development and explanation in the free text section. More help

Sex Applicability

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Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. For example, the biological state being measured could be the activity of an enzyme, the expression of a gene or abundance of an mRNA transcript, the concentration of a hormone or protein, neuronal activity, heart rate, etc. The biological compartment may be a particular cell type, tissue, organ, fluid (e.g., plasma, cerebrospinal fluid), etc. The role in the biology could describe the reaction that an enzyme catalyses and the role of that reaction within a given metabolic pathway; the protein that a gene or mRNA transcript codes for and the function of that protein; the function of a hormone in a given target tissue, physiological function of an organ, etc. Careful attention should be taken to avoid reference to other KEs, KERs or AOPs. Only describe this KE as a single isolated measurable event/state. This will ensure that the KE is modular and can be used by other AOPs, thereby facilitating construction of AOP networks. More help


  • Cholinergic signalling refers to the activation of receptors bound with acetylcholine. Receptors for acetylcholine are collectively referred to as either acetylcholine or cholinergic receptors. They break down into 2 different classes, muscarinic and nicotinic. Each receptor type is associated with specific downstream effects. The lists below are manifestations of associated with each receptor class.

    • Muscarinic: increased salivation, lacrimation, perspiration, miosis, blurred vision, abdominal cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, increased bronchial secretion, bronchoconstriction, urinary frequency, bradycardia, hypotension (Costa)

    • Nicotinic: tachycardia, transient hypertension, muscle fasciculations, twitching, cramps, generalized weakness, flaccid paralysis (Costa)

Signal Transduction

  • The signal transmission mechanisms of both nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors has been intensively studied.

    • The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR) is associated with triggering excitatory responses in motor neurons and skeletal muscle cells (Lodish, 2000). Overstimulation of the diaphragm via nicotinic receptors can lead to respiratory arrest (De Candole, 1953).

      • The nAchR has been extensively studied in neuromuscular junctions. It is a ligand-gated cation channel that allows passage of both potassium and sodium ions. Opening of nAchR ligand-gated ion channels produces a net depolarization at the muscle cell membrane, which leads to release of intracellular calcium, which triggers muscle contraction (Lodish, 2000). In this manner, acetylcholine accumulation can lead to paralysis via overstimulation of nicotinic receptors.  

    • Muscarinic receptors can transmit inhibitory signals. They are expressed on pre- and postsynaptic neurons, and on non-neuronal tissues throughout the body (Lodish, 2000).

    • Muscarinic receptors in the peripheral nervous system are activated by parasympathetic nerves present in airway smooth muscle, submucosal glands, and blood vessels where they trigger bronchoconstriction, mucus secretion, and vasodilatation, respectively (Coulson, 2003). 

      • All muscarinic receptors are G-protein coupled receptors, but the specific features depends on the subtype.

Neuromodulator Role

  • In addition to breaking down acetylcholine’s effects in terms of the receptor types, researchers have started to look at acetylcholine’s effects in terms of acting as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. Classical neurotransmitters act on a time scale of one millisecond to tens of milliseconds. Some researchers have proposed that acetylcholine also acts as a neuromodulator that influences synaptic transmission, plasticity and coordinated firing of groups of neurons over time scales that are much longer than the millisecond time frames associated with neurotransmitters (Picciotto, 2012, Luchicchi, 2014).

How It Is Measured or Detected

One of the primary considerations in evaluating AOPs is the relevance and reliability of the methods with which the KEs can be measured. The aim of this section of the KE description is not to provide detailed protocols, but rather to capture, in a sentence or two, per method, the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements. Methods that can be used to detect or measure the biological state represented in the KE should be briefly described and/or cited. These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA).Key considerations regarding scientific confidence in the measurement approach include whether the assay is fit for purpose, whether it provides a direct or indirect measure of the biological state in question, whether it is repeatable and reproducible, and the extent to which it is accepted in the scientific and/or regulatory community. Information can be obtained from the OECD Test Guidelines website and the EURL ECVAM Database Service on Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation (DB-ALM). ?
  • In humans

    • Pupils - human patients experiencing cholinergic poisoning constricted or pinpointed pupils are frequently reported in clinical cohort studies covering organophosphate exposure (Wadia, 1974, Peter, 2014). 

  • In embryonic fish and frogs

    • Spontaneous movements in developing fish and frog embryos are defined as flexing or side-to-side motion of the trunk or tail and free-swimming activity, defined as bilateral rhythmic flexing of the tail. Embryos were observed under a dissection microscope and the number of movements per minute was recorded. Spontaneous motion is measured at 1 day post fertilization (dpf) in zebrafish embryos and at 2 dpf in Xenopus (Watson, 2014).

    • Embryonic swimming activity in fish and frogs was measured at 5 dpf by placing larvae-containing dishes above an 8-wedged pie chart grid and counting the number of times a larvae crossed a grid line during a 1-min interval (Watson, 2014).

Domain of Applicability

This free text section should be used to elaborate on the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided). While structured terms may be selected to define the taxonomic, life stage and sex applicability (see structured applicability terms, above) of the KE, the structured terms may not adequately reflect or capture the overall biological applicability domain (particularly with regard to taxa). Likewise, the structured terms do not provide an explanation or rationale for the selection. The free-text section on evidence for taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability can be used to elaborate on why the specific structured terms were selected, and provide supporting references and background information.  More help


List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide ( (OECD, 2015). More help
  • Costa.  Toxic effects of pesticides.  In Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons. 9th ed. pp 1055-1106.

  • De Candole, C.A., Douglas, W.W., Evans, C.L., Holmes, R., Spencer, K.E., Torrance, R.W., Wilson, K.M. 1953. The failure of respiration in death by anticholinesterase poisoning. Br J Pharmacol Chemother. 8(4):466-75.

  • Picciotto MR, Higley MJ, Mineur YS., Acetylcholine as a neuromodulator: cholinergic signaling shapes nervous system function and behavior. Neuron. 2012 Oct 4;76(1):116-29.

  • Luchicchi A, Bloem B, Viaña JN, Mansvelder HD, Role LW., Illuminating the role of cholinergic signaling in circuits of attention and emotionally salient behaviors. Front Synaptic Neurosci. 2014 Oct 27;6:24. doi: 10.3389/fnsyn.2014.00024. eCollection 2014.

  • Wadia RS, Sadagopan C, Amin RB, Sardesai HV. Neurological manifestations of organophosphorous insecticide poisoning. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1974 Jul;37(7):841-7.

  • Watson, Fiona L., Hayden Schmidt, Zackery K. Turman, Natalie Hole, Hena Garcia, Jonathan Gregg, Joseph Tilghman, and Erica A. Fradinger. 2014. “Organophosphate Pesticides Induce Morphological Abnormalities and Decrease Locomotor Activity and Heart Rate in Danio Rerio and Xenopus Laevis.” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 33 (6): 1337–45.

  • Peter, John Victor, Thomas Sudarsan, and John Moran. 2014. “Clinical Features of Organophosphate Poisoning: A Review of Different Classification Systems and Approaches.” Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine 18 (11): 735–45.

  • Lodish, Harvey, Arnold Berk, S. Lawrence Zipursky, Paul Matsudaira, David Baltimore, and James Darnell. 2000. “Neurotransmitters, Synapses, and Impulse Transmission.” Molecular Cell Biology. 4th Edition.

  • Coulson FR, Fryer AD. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and airway diseases. Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Apr;98(1):59-69.