API

Event: 586

Key Event Title

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Reduced, swimming speed

Short name

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Reduced, swimming speed

Key Event Component

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Process Object Action
aquatic locomotion decreased

Key Event Overview


AOPs Including This Key Event

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Stressors

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Level of Biological Organization

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Biological Organization
Individual



Taxonomic Applicability

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Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
medaka Oryzias latipes Strong NCBI
Gammarus pulex Gammarus pulex Strong NCBI
Hydra attenuata Hydra vulgaris Moderate NCBI

Life Stages

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Sex Applicability

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How This Key Event Works

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How It Is Measured or Detected

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The swimming speed may be measured by the use of an aquatic tunnel, wherein the researcher controls the speed of the water flow (see Tierney, 2001), or by using video equipment to record the distance the organism swims within a period of time (e.g., Kavitha and Rao, 2007).


Evidence Supporting Taxonomic Applicability

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References

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De Lange, H.J., Noordoven, W., Murk, A.J., Lürling, M., and Peeters, E.T.H.M. 2006. Behavioural responses of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) to low concentrations of pharmaceuticals. Aquatic toxicology 78:209-216.

Kavitha, P. and Venkateswara Rao, J. 2007. Oxidative stress and locomotor behaviour response as biomarkers for assessing recovery status of mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis after lethal effect of an organophosphate pesticide, monocrotophos. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 87:182-188.

Nassef, M., Kim, S.G., Seki, M., Kang, I.J., Hano, T., Shimasaki, Y., and Oshima, Y. 2010. In ovo nanoinjection of triclosan, diclofenac and carbamazepine affects embryonic development of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Chemosphere 79:966-973.

Quinn, B., Gagné, F., and Blaise, C. 2008. An investigation into the acute and chronic toxicity of eleven pharmaceuticals (and their solvents) found in wastewater effluent on the cnidarian, Hydra attenuata. Science of The Total Environment 389:306-314.

Tierney, K.B. 2011. Swimming Performance Assessment in Fishes. Journal of Visualized Experiments : JoVE 2572.