Key Event Title
Key Event Component
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
Level of Biological Organization
How This Key Event Works
Cilia in the gills and pedal of mollusks are under serotonergic control. Serotonergic neurotransmission results in increased levels of cAMP which, in turn, activate protein kinase A (PKA). PKA phosphorylates Serine and threonine residues, which directly increases or decreases the activities of numerous proteins. PKA also activates CREB which binds the cAMP response element, altering downstream gene transcription. In the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis, two isoforms of PKA have been identified with regulatory subunits R(myt1) and R(myt 2). The isoform with R(myt2)appears to mediate cAMP control over cilia beat frequency(Bardales et al., 2011).
How It Is Measured or Detected
Cilia beat frequency (CBF) may be measured by use of video microscopy. Schmid et al., 2006 measured CBF by infrared differential interference contrast (IR-DIC) video microscopy.
Evidence Supporting Taxonomic Applicability
Bardales, J. R., J. L. Cascallana and A. Villamarín (2011). "Differential distribution of cAMP-dependent protein kinase isoforms in various tissues of the bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis." Acta Histochemica 113(7): 743-748.
Schmid, A., G. Bai, N. Schmid, M. Zaccolo, L. E. Ostrowski, G. E. Conner, N. Fregien and M. Salathe (2006). "Real-time analysis of cAMP-mediated regulation of ciliary motility in single primary human airway epithelial cells." Journal of Cell Science 119(20): 4176-4186.