To the extent possible under law, AOP-Wiki has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to KE:845

Event: 845

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

Inhibition, UROD

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. More help
Inhibition, UROD
Explore in a Third Party Tool

Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. More help
Level of Biological Organization
Molecular

Cell term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help

Organ term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; https://aopwiki.org/info_pages/2/info_linked_pages/7#List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Process Object Action
catalytic activity uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase decreased

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
AHR activation-uroporphyria KeyEvent Amani Farhat (send email) Open for citation & comment WPHA/WNT Endorsed

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
mouse Mus musculus High NCBI
rat Rattus norvegicus High NCBI
chicken Gallus gallus High NCBI
Japanese quail Coturnix japonica High NCBI

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help
Life stage Evidence
All life stages Not Specified
Adult High

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KE. More help
Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help
Figure 1: Disruption of the normal heme biosynthesis pathway by uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) inhibition. Formation of the inhibitor (suggested as being uroporphomethene) is thought to require the action of the phase I metabolizing enzyme, CYP1A2. Synergistic induction of ALA synthase 1 and increases in oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species (ROS)), caused by alcohol, estrogens and xenobiotics, potentiate the accumulation of porphyrins and therefore the porphyric phenotype. (Modified from Caballes (2012) Liver Int. 32 (6), 880-893.)

Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) is the fifth enzyme in the heme biosynthesis pathway and catalyzes the step-wise conversion of uroporphyrinogen to coproporphyrinogen. Each of the four acetic acid substituents is decarboxylated in sequence with the consequent formation of hepta-, hexa-, and pentacarboxylic porphyrinogens as intermediates[1]. Impairment of this enzyme, either due to heterozygous mutations in the UROD gene or chemical inhibition of the UROD protein, leads to accumulation of uroporphyrins (and other highly carboxylated porphyrins)[2], which are normally only present in trace amounts.

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help

Methods that have been previously reviewed and approved by a recognized authority should be included in the Overview section above. All other methods, including those well established in the published literature, should be described here. Consider the following criteria when describing each method: 1. Is the assay fit for purpose? 2. Is the assay directly or indirectly (i.e. a surrogate) related to a key event relevant to the final adverse effect in question? 3. Is the assay repeatable? 4. Is the assay reproducible?

Due to the high instability of porphyrinogens, they must be synthesized as an integral part of the enzyme assay for use as a substrate. Uroporphyrinogen can either be generated by enzymatic synthesis or chemical reduction[7]. The former makes use of bacterial porphobilinogen deaminase to prepare the porphyrinogen substrate and the latter often utilizes sodium amalgam or sodium borohydride under an inert gas. Chemical reduction however often involves large quantities of mercury or extremely alkaline conditions and requires significant purification before the enzyme assay can be performed. Bergonia and colleagues[8] suggest palladium on carbon (Pd/C) to be the most efficient and environmentally friendly chemical preparation of porphyrinogens as Pd/C is more stable than sodium amalgam and can easily be removed by filtration, eliminating the need for laborious purification.

Once uroporphyrinogen is synthesized it is co-incubated with UROD under standardized conditions. The reaction is then stopped, reaction products and un-metabolized substrate are esterified, and the porphyrin esters are separated and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography[7]. This enzyme assay classically utilizes milliliter quantities but has been modified to a microassay, minimizing cost and enhancing sensitivity[9].

Another method based on reverse-phase HPLC was developed[15]. This assay system uses either uroporphyrinogen III or pentacarboxyporphyrinogen I as substrate and liver homogenate in sucrose treated with a suspension of cellulose phosphate as enzyme source.

Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help

UROD inhibition has been measured in mouse[10] rat[11] and human liver[1], Japanese quail kidney[12] and chicken erythrocytes[13] and hepatocytes[14].

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help
  1. Elder, G. H., and Roberts, A. G. (1995). Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase. J Bioenerg. Biomembr. 27 (2), 207-214.
  2. Frank, J., and Poblete-Gutierrez, P. (2010). Porphyria cutanea tarda--when skin meets liver. Best. Pract. Res. Clin Gastroenterol. 24 (5), 735-745.
  3. Smith, A. G., and Elder, G. H. (2010). Complex gene-chemical interactions: hepatic uroporphyria as a paradigm. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23 (4), 712-723.
  4. Phillips, J. D., Bergonia, H. A., Reilly, C. A., Franklin, M. R., and Kushner, J. P. (2007). A porphomethene inhibitor of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase causes porphyria cutanea tarda. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 104 (12), 5079-5084.
  5. Danton, M., and Lim, C. K. (2007). Porphomethene inhibitor of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase: analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Biomed. Chromatogr. 21 (7), 661-663
  6. Caballes F.R., Sendi, H., and Bonkovsky, H. L. (2012). Hepatitis C, porphyria cutanea tarda and liver iron: an update. Liver Int. 32 (6), 880-893.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Phillips, J. D., and Kushner, J. P. (2001). Measurement of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity. Curr. Protoc. Toxicol. Chapter 8, Unit.
  8. Bergonia, H. A., Phillips, J. D., and Kushner, J. P. (2009). Reduction of porphyrins to porphyrinogens with palladium on carbon. Anal. Biochem. 384 (1), 74-78.
  9. Jones, M. A., Thientanavanich, P., Anderson, M. D., and Lash, T. D. (2003). Comparison of two assay methods for activities of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase and coproporphyrinogen oxidase. J Biochem. Biophys. Methods 55 (3), 241-249.
  10. Smith, A. G., Francis, J. E., Kay, S. J., and Greig, J. B. (1981) Hepatic toxicity and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity following a single dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to mice. Biochem. Pharmacol. 30 (20), 2825-2830.
  11. Rios de Molina, M.D., Wainstok de Calmanovici, R., San Martin de Viale, L.C. (1980) Investigations of the presence of porphyrinogen carboxy-lase inhibitor in the liver of rats intoxicated with hexachlorobenzene. Int. J. Biochem. 12, 1027-32.
  12. Miranda, C.L., Henderson, M.C., Wang, J.-L, Nakaue, H.S., and Buhler, D.R. (1992) Comparative effects of the polychlorinated biphenyl mixture, Aroclor 1242, on porphyrin and xenobiotic metabolism in kidney of Japanese quial and rat. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 103C(1), 149-52.
  13. Kawanishi, S., Seki, Y., and Sano, S. (1983) Uroporphyrinogen decarboxilase: Purification, properties, and inhibition by polychlorinated biphenyl isomers. J. Biol. Chem. 258(7), 4285-92.
  14. Lambrecht, R. W., Sinclair, P. R., Bement, W. J., Sinclair, J. F., Carpenter, H. M., Buhler, D. R., Urquhart, A. J., and Elder, G. H. (1988). Hepatic uroporphyrin accumulation and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity in cultured chick-embryo hepatocytes and in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and mice treated with polyhalogenated aromatic compounds. Biochem. J. 253(1), 131-138.
  15. Francis, J. E., & Smith, A. G. (1984). Assay of mouse liver uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Analytical biochemistry138(2), 404-410.