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Decreased, Triiodothyronine (T3) in serum leads to Reduced, Anterior swim bladder inflation
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|Deiodinase 2 inhibition leading to increased mortality via reduced anterior swim bladder inflation||adjacent||Moderate||Moderate||Dries Knapen (send email)||Open for adoption||Under Development|
|Deiodinase 1 inhibition leading to increased mortality via reduced anterior swim bladder inflation||adjacent||Moderate||Moderate||Dries Knapen (send email)||Open for adoption||Under Development|
|Thyroperoxidase inhibition leading to increased mortality via reduced anterior swim bladder inflation||adjacent||Moderate||Moderate||Dries Knapen (send email)||Open for adoption||Under Development|
Life Stage Applicability
Key Event Relationship Description
Thyroid hormones are known to be involved in development, especially in metamorphosis in amphibians and in embryonic-to-larval transition and larval-to-juvenile transition in fish. Inflation of the anterior swim bladder chamber is part of the larval-to-juvenile transition in fish, together with the development of adult fins and fin rays, ossification of the axial skeleton, formation of an adult pigmentation pattern, scale formation, maturation and remodeling of organs including the lateral line, nervous system, gut and kidneys.
Evidence Supporting this KER
Thyroid hormones are known to be involved in development, especially in metamorphosis in amphibians and in embryonic-to-larval transition (Liu and Chan, 2002) and larval-to-juvenile transition (Brown et al., 1997) in fish. Inflation of the anterior swim bladder chamber is part of the larval-to-juvenile transition in fish, together with the development of adult fins and fin rays, ossification of the axial skeleton, formation of an adult pigmentation pattern, scale formation, maturation and remodeling of organs including the lateral line, nervous system, gut and kidneys (Brown, 1997; Liu and Chan, 2002; McMenamin and Parichy, 2013).
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
- Since in fish early life stages THs are typically measured on a whole body level, it is currently uncertain whether TH levels changes occur at the serum and/or tissue level. Pending more dedicated studies, whole body TH levels are considered a proxy for serum TH levels.
- Reduced anterior chamber inflation upon disruption of the thyroid hormone system is in most cases, but not always, accompanied by reduced whole body T3 levels. Stinckens et al. (2016) found a consistent relationship between reduced whole body T4 levels, but not T3 levels, and reduced anterior chamber inflation. Possibly, local T4 levels in the swim bladder tissue were too low to allow for enough local activation to T3. This relates to the general uncertainty on serum versus tissue TH levels.
- The mechanism underlying the link between reduced T3 and reduced anterior chamber inflation remains unclear, but several hypotheses exist (Stinckens et al., 2020). For example, altered gas distribution between chambers could be the result of impaired development of smooth muscle fibers, delayed and/or impaired evagination of the anterior chamber, impaired anterior budding through altered Wnt and hedgehog signalling, etc.
- Increased T3 levels also seem to result in reduced swim bladder inflation. For example, Li et al. (2011) reported impairment of swim bladder inflation in Chinese rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) exposed to exogenous T3.
Known modulating factors
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
Taxonomic: Teleost fish can be divided in two groups according to swim bladder morphology: physoclistous (e.g., yellow perch) and physostomus (e.g., zebrafish and fathead minnow). Physostomus fish retain a duct between the digestive tract and the swim bladder during adulthood allowing them to gulp air at the surface to fill the swim bladder. In contrast, in physoclistous fish, once initial inflation by gulping atmospheric air at the water surface has occurred, the swim bladder is closed off from the digestive tract and swim bladder volume is regulated by gas secretion into the swim bladder (Woolley and Qin, 2010). The evidence for impaired inflation of the anterior chamber of the swim bladder currently comes from work on zebrafish and fathead minnow (Stinckens et al., 2016; Nelson et al., 2016; Cavallin et al., 2017; Godfrey et al., 2017; Stinckens et al., 2020).
Life stage: The anterior chamber inflates during a specific developmental time frame. In zebrafish, the anterior chamber inflates around 21 days post fertilization (dpf) which is during the larval stage. In the fathead minnow, the anterior chamber inflates around 14 dpf, also during the larval stage. Therefore this KER is only applicable to the larval life stage.
Sex: This KER is probably not sex-dependent since both females and males rely on THs for regulation of vital processes. Additionally, zebrafish are undifferentiated gonochorists, and gonad differentiation starts only around 23-25 dpf (Uchida et al., 2002), after the time point of anterior chamber inflation (around 21 dpf in zebrafish).
- Brown, C. L., Doroshov, S. I., Nunez, J. M., Hadley, C., Vaneenennaam, J., Nishioka, R. S. and Bern, H. A. (1988), Maternal triiodothyronine injections cause increases in swimbladder inflation and survival rates in larval striped bass, Morone saxatilis. J. Exp. Zool., 248: 168–176. doi: 10.1002/jez.1402480207
- Brown, D.D., 1997. The role of thyroid hormone in zebrafish and axolotl development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 94, 13011-13016.
- Cavallin, J.E., Ankley, G.T., Blackwell, B.R., Blanksma, C.A., Fay, K.A., Jensen, K.M., Kahl, M.D., Knapen, D., Kosian, P.A., Poole, S.T., Randolph, E.C., Schroeder, A.L., Vergauwen, L., Villeneuve, D.L., 2017. Impaired swim bladder inflation in early life stage fathead minnows exposed to a deiodinase inhibitor, iopanoic acid. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 36, 2942-2952.
- Godfrey, A., Hooser, B., Abdelmoneim, A., Horzmann, K.A., Freemanc, J.L., Sepulveda, M.S., 2017. Thyroid disrupting effects of halogenated and next generation chemicals on the swim bladder development of zebrafish. Aquatic Toxicology 193, 228-235.
- Li W, Zha J, Yang L, Li Z, Wang Z. Regulation of thyroid hormone related genes mRNA expression by exogenous T₃ in larvae and adult Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus). Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011 Jan;31(1):189-97. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2010.10.007.
- Liu, Y.W., Chan, W.K., 2002. Thyroid hormones are important for embryonic to larval transitory phase in zebrafish. Differentiation 70, 36-45.
- McMenamin, S.K., Parichy, D.M., 2013. Metamorphosis in Teleosts. Animal Metamorphosis 103, 127-165.
- Nelson KR, Schroeder AL, Ankley GT, Blackwell BR, Blanksma C, Degitz SJ, Flynn KM, Jensen KM, Johnson RD, Kahl MD, Knapen D, Kosian PA, Milsk RY, Randolph EC,Saari T, Stinckens E, Vergauwen L, Villeneuve DL. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole part I: Fathead minnow. Aquat Toxicol. 2016 Apr;173:192-203. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2015.12.024.
- Stinckens, E., Vergauwen, L., Schroeder, A., Maho, W., Blackwell, B., Witters, H., Blust, R., Ankley, G., Covaci, A., Villeneuve, D., Knapen, D., 2016. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole part II: Zebrafish. Aquatic Toxicology 173, 204-217.
- Stinckens, E., Vergauwen, L., Blackwell, B.R., Anldey, G.T., Villeneuve, D.L., Knapen, D., 2020. Effect of Thyroperoxidase and Deiodinase Inhibition on Anterior Swim Bladder Inflation in the Zebrafish. Environmental Science & Technology 54, 6213-6223.
- Uchida, D., Yamashita, M., Kitano, T., Iguchi, T., 2002. Oocyte apoptosis during the transition from ovary-like tissue to testes during sex differentiation of juvenile zebrafish. Journal of Experimental Biology 205, 711-718.