API

Relationship: 1035

Title

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Decreased, Triiodothyronine (T3) in serum leads to Reduced, Anterior swim bladder inflation

Upstream event

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Decreased, Triiodothyronine (T3) in serum

Downstream event

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Reduced, Anterior swim bladder inflation

Key Event Relationship Overview

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AOPs Referencing Relationship

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Taxonomic Applicability

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Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
zebrafish Danio rerio NCBI
fathead minnow Pimephales promelas NCBI

Sex Applicability

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Sex Evidence
Unspecific High

Life Stage Applicability

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Term Evidence
Juvenile High

Key Event Relationship Description

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Evidence Supporting this KER

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Biological Plausibility

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Empirical Evidence

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  • In a study in which embryo-larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), T3 concentrations measured at 14dpf were reduced at the same concentration (1 mg/L) that significantly reduced anterior swim bladder inflation at the same time-point (Nelson et al. 2016).
  • Maternal injection of T3, resulting in increased T3 concentrations in the eggs of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) lead to significant increases in both swim bladder inflation and survival (Brown et al., 1988).
  • In the study of Cavallin et al. (2017) fathead minnow larvae were exposed to IOP, a model iodothyronine deiodinase inhibitor that is assumed to inhibit all three deiodinase enzymes (DIO1,2,3). The authors observed pronounced decreases of whole body T3 concentrations and increases of whole body T4 concentrations, together with impaired inflation of the anterior swim bladder chamber. More specifically, inflation was delayed and the size of the swim bladder chamber was reduced until the end of the exposure experiment. Since exposure was started after inflation of the posterior chamber, this study shows that DIO inhibition can directly affect anterior chamber inflation.

Uncertainties and Inconsistencies

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  • Li et al. (2011) reported impairment of swim bladder inflation in Chinese rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) exposed to exogenous T3.

Quantitative Understanding of the Linkage

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Response-response Relationship

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Time-scale

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Known modulating factors

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Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER

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Domain of Applicability

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This KER is probably not sex-dependent since both females and males rely on THs for regulation of vital processes. Additionally, zebrafish are undifferentiated gonochorists, and gonad differentiation starts only around 23-25 dpf (Uchida et al., 2002), after the time point of anterior chamber inflation (around 21 dpf).

References

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  • Brown, C. L., Doroshov, S. I., Nunez, J. M., Hadley, C., Vaneenennaam, J., Nishioka, R. S. and Bern, H. A. (1988), Maternal triiodothyronine injections cause increases in swimbladder inflation and survival rates in larval striped bass, Morone saxatilis. J. Exp. Zool., 248: 168–176. doi: 10.1002/jez.1402480207
  • Cavallin, J.E., Ankley, G.T., Blackwell, B.R., Blanksma, C.A., Fay, K.A., Jensen, K.M., Kahl, M.D., Knapen, D., Kosian, P.A., Poole, S.T., Randolph, E.C., Schroeder, A.L., Vergauwen, L., Villeneuve, D.L., 2017. Impaired swim bladder inflation in early life stage fathead minnows exposed to a deiodinase inhibitor, iopanoic acid. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 36, 2942-2952.
  • Li W, Zha J, Yang L, Li Z, Wang Z. Regulation of thyroid hormone related genes mRNA expression by exogenous T₃ in larvae and adult Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus). Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011 Jan;31(1):189-97. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2010.10.007.
  • Nelson KR, Schroeder AL, Ankley GT, Blackwell BR, Blanksma C, Degitz SJ, Flynn KM, Jensen KM, Johnson RD, Kahl MD, Knapen D, Kosian PA, Milsk RY, Randolph EC,Saari T, Stinckens E, Vergauwen L, Villeneuve DL. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole part I: Fathead minnow. Aquat Toxicol. 2016 Apr;173:192-203. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2015.12.024.
  • Uchida, D., Yamashita, M., Kitano, T., Iguchi, T., 2002. Oocyte apoptosis during the transition from ovary-like tissue to testes during sex differentiation of juvenile zebrafish. Journal of Experimental Biology 205, 711-718.