To the extent possible under law, AOP-Wiki has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to KER:1039
T4 in serum, Decreased leads to Reduced, Anterior swim bladder inflation
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|Thyroperoxidase inhibition leading to increased mortality via reduced anterior swim bladder inflation||non-adjacent||Moderate||Moderate||Dries Knapen (send email)||Open for adoption||EAGMST Under Review|
Life Stage Applicability
Key Event Relationship Description
Reduced T4 levels in serum prohibit local production of active T3 hormone by deiodinases expressed in the target tissues. There is evidence suggesting that anterior swim bladder inflation relies on increased thyroid hormone levels at this specific developmental time point.
Evidence Supporting this KER
Thyroid hormones are known to be involved in development, especially in metamorphosis in amphibians and in embryonic-to-larval transition (Liu and Chan, 2002) and larval-to-juvenile transition (Brown et al., 1997) in fish. The formation of the anterior chamber coincides with the second transition phase (Winata et al., 2009) and with a peak in T4 synthesis (Chang et al., 2012) suggesting that anterior inflation is under thyroid hormone regulation. Since most of the more biologically active T3 originates from the conversion of T4, decreased circulatory T4 levels are plausibly linked to reduced anterior chamber inflation.
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
The mechanism through which reduced T4 hormone concentrations in serum result in anterior chamber inflation impairment is not yet understood. The anterior chamber is formed by evagination from the cranial end of the posterior chamber (Robertson et al., 2007, Winata et al., 2009). Several hypotheses could explain effects on anterior chamber inflation due to reduced T4 levels:
- Evagination from the posterior chamber could be impaired. Villeneuve et al. (unpublished results) showed that although the anterior bud was present after exposure to a deiodinase 2 inhibitor, the anterior chamber did not inflate.
- The formation of the tissue layers of the anterior swim bladder could be affected, although Villeneuve et al. (unpublished results) observed intact tissue layers of the anterior swim bladder after exposure to a deiodinase 2 inhibitor.
- The anterior chamber is inflated with gas from the posterior chamber through the communicating duct. Impaired gas exchange between the two chambers could be at the basis of impaired anterior inflation. Both Nelson et al. (2016) and Stinckens et al. (2016) found that posterior chambers were larger when anterior chambers were smaller or not inflated at all. The sum of the areas of the posterior and anterior chambers remained constant independent of inflation of the anterior chamber (Stinkens et al., 2016). These results suggest retention of the gas in the posterior chamber.
- Since gas exchange relies on a functional communicating duct between the posterior and anterior chamber, and the communicating duct is known to progressively narrow and eventually close during development, a dysfunctional communicating duct or a closure prior to anterior inflation could inhibit inflation. However, Villeneuve et al. (unpublished results) showed that the communicating duct was anatomically intact and open after exposure to iopanoic acid (a deiodinase 2 inhibitor), still leading to impaired anterior inflation.
- Lactic acid production which is essential for producing gas to fill the swim bladder could be affected, although the observation that the total amount of gas in both chambers is not affected when anterior inflation is impaired seems to contradict this (Stinckens et al., 2016).
- Possibly there is an effect on the production of surfactant, which is crucial to maintain the surface tension necessary for swim bladder inflation.
Known modulating factors
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Reduced anterior chamber inflation upon disruption of the thyroid hormone system is consistently accompanied by reduced whole body T4 levels when fish are exposed to thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitors. however, when fish are exposed to deiodinase inhibitors, in the absence of feedback processes, stable T4 levels would be expected. Stable T4 levels were indeed observed in 14, 21 and 32 day old zebrafish exposed to iopanoic acid, a deiodinase inhibitor. While Cavallin et al. (2017) found a consistent relationship between reduced whole body T3 levels, and reduced anterior chamber inflation after exposure of fathead minnows to iopanoic acid, they observed increased T4 levels. Possibly, the inhibition of the conversion of T4 to T3 resulted in a compensatory mechanism that increased T4 levels. This was accompanied by increases of deiodinase 2 and 3 mRNA levels, which also indicate a compensatory response to deiodinase inhibition.
Domain of Applicability
The evidence for a relationship between circulating T4 levels and inflation of the anterior chamber of the swim bladder currently comes from work on zebrafish and fathead minnow.
This KER is probably not sex-dependent since both females and males rely on synthesis of THs for regulation of vital processes. Additionally, zebrafish are undifferentiated gonochorists, and gonad differentiation starts only around 23-25 dpf (Uchida et al., 2002), after the time point of anterior chamber inflation (around 21 dpf).
- Alt, B., Reibe, S., Feitosa, N.M., Elsalini, O.A., Wendl, T., Rohr, K.B., 2006. Analysis of origin and growth of the thyroid gland in zebrafish. Dev. Dyn. 235, 1872–1883, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.20831.
- Brown, C.L., Doroshov, S.I., Nunez, J.M., Hadley, C., Vaneenennaam, J., Nishioka, R.S. and Bern, H.A. 1988. Maternal triiodothyronine injections cause increases in swimbladder inflation and survival rates in larval striped bass, Morone saxatilis. J. Exp. Zool. 248: 168–176.
- Brown, C.L., Sullivan, C.V., Bern, H.A. and Dickhoff, W.W. 1987. Occurrence of thyroid hormones in early developmental stages of teleost fish. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 2: 144–150.
- Brown, D.D., 1997. The role of thyroid hormone in zebrafish and axolotl development. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 94, 13011–13016, http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1073/pnas.94.24.13011.
- Campinho, M.A., Saraiva, J., Florindo, C., Power, D.M., 2014. Maternal Thyroid Hormones Are Essential for Neural Development in Zebrafish. Molecular Endocrinology 28, 1136-1149.
- Cavallin, J.E., Ankley, G.T., Blackwell, B.R., Blanksma, C.A., Fay, K.A., Jensen, K.M., Kahl, M.D., Knapen, D., Kosian, P.A., Poole, S.T., Randolph, E.C., Schroeder, A.L., Vergauwen, L., Villeneuve, D.L., 2017. Impaired swim bladder inflation in early life stage fathead minnows exposed to a deiodinase inhibitor, iopanoic acid. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 36, 2942-2952.
- Chang, J., Wang, M., Gui, W., Zhao, Y., Yu, L., Zhu, G., 2012. Changes in thyroid hormone levels during zebrafish development. Zool. Sci. 29, 181–184, http:// dx.doi.org/10.2108/zsj.29.181.
- Chopra, K., Ishibashi, S., Amaya, E., 2019. Zebrafish duox mutations provide a model for human congenital hypothyroidism. Biology Open 8(2):bio.037655, DOI:10.1242/bio.037655.
- Elsalini, O.A., Rohr, K.B., 2003. Phenylthiourea disrupts thyroid function in developing zebrafish. Dev. Genes Evol. 212, 593–598, http://dx.doi.org/10. 1007/s00427-002-0279-3.
- Godfrey, A., Hooser, B., Abdelmoneim, A., Horzmann, K.A., Freemanc, J.L., Sepulveda, M.S., 2017. Thyroid disrupting effects of halogenated and next generation chemicals on the swim bladder development of zebrafish. Aquatic Toxicology 193, 228-235.
- Hsu, C.W., Tsai, S.C., Shen, S.C., Wu, S.M., 2014. Profiles of thyrotropin, thyroid hormones, follicular cells and type I deiodinase gene expression during ontogenetic development of tilapia larvae and juveniles. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 40, 1587-1599.
- Liu, Y.W., Chan, W.K., 2002. Thyroid hormones are important for embryonic to larval transitory phase in zebrafish. Differentiation 70, 36–45, http://dx.doi. org/10.1046/j.1432-0436.2002.700104.x.
- Nelson KR, Schroeder AL, Ankley GT, Blackwell BR, Blanksma C, Degitz SJ, Flynn KM, Jensen KM, Johnson RD, Kahl MD, Knapen D, Kosian PA, Milsk RY, Randolph EC, Saari T, Stinckens E, Vergauwen L, Villeneuve DL. 2016. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole – Part I: fathead minnow. Aquatic Toxicology 173: 192-203.
- Power DM, Llewellyn L, Faustino M, Nowell MA, Björnsson BT, Einarsdottir IE, Canario AV, Sweeney GE. Thyroid hormones in growth and development of fish. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2001 Dec; 130(4):447-59.
- Reider, M., Connaughton, V.P., 2014. Effects of Low-Dose Embryonic Thyroid Disruption and Rearing Temperature on the Development of the Eye and Retina in Zebrafish. Birth Defects Res. Part B Dev. Reprod. Toxicol. 101, 347–354, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdrb.21118.
- Roberston, G.N., McGee, C.A.S., Dumbarton, T.C., Croll, R.P., Smith, F.M., 2007. Development of the swim bladder and its innervation in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. J. Morphol. 268, 967–985, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmor.
- Ruuskanen, S., Hsu, B.Y., 2018. Maternal Thyroid Hormones: An Unexplored Mechanism Underlying Maternal Effects in an Ecological Framework. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 91, 904-916.
- Stinckens E, Vergauwen L, Schroeder AL, Maho W, Blackwell BR, Witters H, Blust R, Ankley GT, Covaci A, Villeneuve DL, Knapen D. 2016. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole – Part II: zebrafish. Aquatic Toxicology 173:204-217.
- Stinckens, E., Vergauwen, L., Ankley, G.T., Blust, R., Darras, V.M., Villeneuve, D.L., Witters, H., Volz, D.C., Knapen, D., 2018. An AOP-based alternative testing strategy to predict the impact of thyroid hormone disruption on swim bladder inflation in zebrafish. Aquatic Toxicology 200, 1-12.
- Stinckens, E., Vergauwen, L., Blackwell, B.R., Anldey, G.T., Villeneuve, D.L., Knapen, D., 2020. Effect of Thyroperoxidase and Deiodinase Inhibition on Anterior Swim Bladder Inflation in the Zebrafish. Environmental Science & Technology 54, 6213-6223.
- Uchida, D., Yamashita, M., Kitano, T., Iguchi, T., 2002. Oocyte apoptosis during the transition from ovary-like tissue to testes during sex differentiation of juvenile zebrafish. Journal of Experimental Biology 205, 711-718.
- Walpita, C.N., Van der Geyten, S., Rurangwa, E., Darras, V.M., 2007. The effect of 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine supplementation on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonic development and expression of iodothyronine deiodinases and thyroid hormone receptors. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 152, 206–214, http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.ygcen.2007.02.020.
- Winata, C.L., Korzh, S., Kondrychyn, I., Zheng, W., Korzh, V., Gong, Z., 2009. Development of zebrafish swimbladder: the requirement of Hedgehog signaling in specification and organization of the three tissue layers. Dev. Biol. 331, 222–236, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2009.04.035.