Key Event Title
Key Event Component
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
Level of Biological Organization
|Xenopus laevis||Xenopus laevis||Strong||NCBI|
|zebra fish||Danio rerio||Moderate||NCBI|
Life Stage Applicability
|All life stages||Strong|
How This Key Event Works
All iodothyronines are derived from the modification of tyrosine molecules (Taurog, 2000). There are two biologically active thyroid hormones (THs) in serum, triiodothyronine (T3) and T4, and a few inactive iodothyronines (rT3, 3,5-T2). T4 is the predominant TH in circulation, comprising approximately 80% of the TH excreted from the thyroid gland and is the pool from which the majority of T3 in serum is generated (Zoeller et al., 2007). As such, serum T4 changes usually precede changes in other serum THs. Decreased thyroxine (T4) in serum results result from one or more MIEs upstream and is considered a key biomarker of altered TH homeostasis (DeVito et al., 1999).
Serum T4 is used as a biomarker of TH status because the circulatory system serves as the major transport and delivery system for TH delivery to tissues. The majority of THs in the blood are bound to transport proteins (Bartalena and Robbins, 1993). In serum, it is the unbound, or ‘free’ form of the hormone that thought to be available for transport into tissues. Free hormones are approximately 0.03 and 0.3 percent for T4 and T3, respectively. There are major species differences in the predominant binding proteins and their affinities for THs (see below). However, there is broad agreement that changes in serum concentrations of THs is diagnostic of thyroid disease or chemical-induced disruption of thyroid homeostasis (DeVito et al., 1999; Miller et al., 2009; Zoeller et al., 2007).
Normal serum T4 reference ranges can be species and lifestage specific. In rodents, serum THs are low in the fetal circulation, increasing as the fetal thyroid gland becomes functional on gestational day 17, just a few days prior to birth. After birth serum hormones increase steadily, peaking at two weeks, and falling slightly to adult levels by postnatal day 21 (Walker et al., 1980; Harris et al., 1978; Goldely et al., 1995; Lau et al., 2003). Similarly, in humans, adult reference ranges for THs do not reflect the normal ranges for children at different developmental stages, with TH concentrations highest in infants, still increased in childhood, prior to a decline to adult levels coincident with pubertal development (Corcoran et al. 1977; Kapelari et al., 2008). In some frog species, there is an analogous peak in thyroid hormones in tadpoles that starts around NF stage 56, peaks at Stage 62 and the declines to lower levels by Stage 56 (Sternberg et al., 2011; Leloup and Buscaglia, 1977).
How It Is Measured or Detected
Serum T3 and T4 can be measured as free (unbound) or total (bound + unbound). Free hormone concentrations are clinically considered more direct indicators of T4 and T3 activities in the body, but in animal studies, total T3 and T4 are typically measured. Historically, the most widely used method in toxicology is radioimmunoassay (RIA). The method is routinely used in rodent endocrine and toxicity studies. The ELISA method is a commonly used as a human clinical test method. Least common is analytical determination of iodothyronines (T3, T4, rT3, T2) and their conjugates, though methods employing HLPC and mass spectrometry exist (Hornung et al., 2015; DeVito et al., 1999; Spencer, 2013).
Any of these measurements should be evaluated for the relationship to the actual endpoint of interest, repeatability, reproducibility, and lower limits of quantification using a fit-for-purpose approach (i.e., different regulatory needs will require different levels of confidence in the AOP). All three of the methods summarized above would be fit-for-purpose, depending on the number of samples to be evaluated and the associated costs of each method. Both RIA and ELISA measure THs by an indirect methodology, whereas analytical determination is the most direct measurement available. All these methods, particularly RIA, are repeatable and reproducible.
Thyroxine-immunofluorescence quantitative disruption test (TIQDT) was designed to provide a simple, rapid, alternative bioassay for assessing the potential of chemical pollutants and drugs to disrupt thyroid gland function. Thyroid gland functionality was evaluated by
measuring IT4C in 4768 120 hpf zebrafish eleutheroembryos, following the TIQDT protocol (Thienpont et al., 2011).This study demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provided a suitable vertebrate model, not only for screening the potential thyroid disrupting effect of molecules, but also for estimating the potential hazards associated with exposure to chemicals directly impairing thyroxine (T4) synthesis. Amitrole, potassium perchlorate, potassium thiocyanate, methimazole (MMI), phloroglucinol, 6-propyl-2-thiouracil, ethylenethiourea, benzophenone-2, resorcinol, pyrazole, sulfamethoxazole, sodium bromide, mancozeb, and genistein were classified as thyroid gland function disruptors. Concordance between TIQDT on zebrafish and mammalian published data was very high. TIQDT performed on zebrafish eleutheroembryos is an alternative whole-organism screening assay that provides relevant information for environmental and human risk assessments.
Evidence Supporting Taxonomic Applicability
The overall evidence supporting taxonomic applicability is strong. THs are evolutionarily conserved molecules present in all vertebrate species (Hulbert, 2000; Yen, 2001). Moreover, their crucial role in zebra fish (Thienpont et al., 2011), amphibian and lamprey metamorphoses is well established (Manzon and Youson, 1997; Yaoita and Brown, 1990; Furlow and Neff, 2006). Their existence and importance has also been described in many different animal and plant kingdoms (Eales, 1997; Heyland and Moroz, 2005), while their role as environmental messenger via exogenous routes in echinoderms confirms the hypothesis that these molecules are widely distributed among the living organisms (Heyland and Hodin, 2004). However, the role of TH in the different species depends on the expression and function of specific proteins (e.g receptors or enzymes) under TH control and may vary across species and tissues. As such extrapolation regarding TH action across species should be done with caution.
With few exceptions, vertebrate species have circulating T4 (and T3) that are bound to transport proteins in blood. Clear species differences exist in serum transport proteins (Dohler et al., 1979; Yamauchi and Isihara, 2009). There are three major transport proteins in mammals; thyroid binding globulin (TBG), transthyretin (TTR), and albumin. In adult humans, the percent bound to these proteins is about 75, 15 and 10 percent, respectively (Schussler 2000). In contrast, in adult rats the majority of THs are bound to TTR. Thyroid binding proteins are developmentally regulated in rats. TBG is expressed in rats until approximately postnatal day (PND) 60, with peak expression occurring during weaning (Savu et al., 1989). However, low levels of TBG persist into adult ages in rats and can be experimentally induced by hypothyroidism, malnutrition, or caloric restriction (Rouaze-Romet et al., 1992). While these species differences impact TH half-life (Capen, 1997) and possibly regulatory feedback mechanisms, there is little information on quantitative dose-response relationships of binding proteins and serum hormones during development across different species. Serum THs are still regarded as the most robust measurable key event causally linked to downstream adverse outcomes.
Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor
6-n-propylthouracil is a classic positive control for inhibition of TPO
Classic positive control
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