To the extent possible under law, AOP-Wiki has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to KE:281
Key Event Title
Thyroxine (T4) in serum, Decreased
|Level of Biological Organization|
Key Event Components
|abnormal circulating thyroxine level||thyroxine||decreased|
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
|AOP Name||Role of event in AOP||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|TPO Inhibition and Altered Neurodevelopment||KeyEvent||Kevin Crofton (send email)||Open for citation & comment||WPHA/WNT Endorsed|
|NIS inhibition and learning and memory impairment||KeyEvent||Anna Price (send email)||Open for citation & comment||WPHA/WNT Endorsed|
|Nuclear receptor induced TH Catabolism and Developmental Hearing Loss||KeyEvent||Katie Paul Friedman (send email)||Open for adoption||Under Development|
|NIS and Neurodevelopment||KeyEvent||Kevin Crofton (send email)||Not under active development|
|NIS and Cognitive Dysfunction||KeyEvent||Mary Gilbert (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome|
|Transthyretin interference||KeyEvent||Kristie Sullivan (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome||Under Development|
|TPOi anterior swim bladder||KeyEvent||Dries Knapen (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome||EAGMST Approved|
|TPO inhib alters metamorphosis||KeyEvent||Jonathan Haselman (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome|
|NIS inhib alters metamorphosis||KeyEvent||Jonathan Haselman (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome|
|Hepatic nuclear receptor activation alters metamorphosis||KeyEvent||Jonathan Haselman (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome|
|TH displacement from serum TTR leading to altered amphibian metamorphosis||KeyEvent||Jonathan Haselman (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
|TH displacement from serum TBG leading to altered amphibian metamorphosis||KeyEvent||Jonathan Haselman (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
|TPOi retinal layer structure||KeyEvent||Lucia Vergauwen (send email)||Open for citation & comment||EAGMST Under Review|
|TPOi eye size||KeyEvent||Lucia Vergauwen (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite||Under Development|
|TPOi photoreceptor patterning||KeyEvent||Lucia Vergauwen (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite||Under Development|
|Thyroid peroxidase- follicular adenoma/carcinoma||KeyEvent||Charles Wood (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome|
|Iodide pump inhibition- follicular adenoma/carcinoma||KeyEvent||Charles Wood (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome|
|thyroid follicular cell adenomas and carcinomas||KeyEvent||Charles Wood (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome|
|Kidney dysfunction||KeyEvent||Jung-Hwa Oh (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite||Under Development|
|IYD inhib alters metamorphosis||KeyEvent||Jonathan Haselman (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome|
|Pendrin inhib alters metamorphosis||KeyEvent||Jonathan Haselman (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome|
|DUOX inhib alters metamorphosis||KeyEvent||Jonathan Haselman (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome|
|Xenopus laevis||Xenopus laevis||Moderate||NCBI|
|fathead minnow||Pimephales promelas||High||NCBI|
|Sus scrofa||Sus scrofa||High||NCBI|
|All life stages||High|
Key Event Description
All iodothyronines are derived from the modification of tyrosine molecules (Taurog, 2000). There are two biologically active thyroid hormones (THs) in serum, triiodothyronine (T3) and T4, and a few less active iodothyronines (rT3, 3,5-T2). T4 is the predominant TH in circulation, comprising approximately 80% of the TH excreted from the thyroid gland in mammals and is the pool from which the majority of T3 in serum is generated (Zoeller et al., 2007). As such, serum T4 changes usually precede changes in other serum THs. Decreased thyroxine (T4) in serum results from one or more MIEs upstream and is considered a key biomarker of altered TH homeostasis (DeVito et al., 1999).
Serum T4 is used as a biomarker of TH status because the circulatory system serves as the major transport and delivery system for TH delivery to tissues. The majority of THs in the blood are bound to transport proteins (Bartalena and Robbins, 1993). In serum, it is the unbound, or ‘free’ form of the hormone that is thought to be available for transport into tissues. Free hormones are approximately 0.03 and 0.3 percent for T4 and T3, respectively. There are major species differences in the predominant binding proteins and their affinities for THs (see below). However, there is broad agreement that changes in serum concentrations of THs is diagnostic of thyroid disease or chemical-induced disruption of thyroid homeostasis across vertebrates (DeVito et al., 1999; Miller et al., 2009; Zoeller et al., 2007; Carr and Patiño, 2011).
Normal serum T4 reference ranges can be species and lifestage specific. In rodents, serum THs are low in the fetal circulation, increasing as the fetal thyroid gland becomes functional on gestational day 17, just a few days prior to birth. After birth serum hormones increase steadily, peaking at two weeks, and falling slightly to adult levels by postnatal day 21 (Walker et al., 1980; Harris et al., 1978; Goldey et al., 1995; Lau et al., 2003). Similarly, in humans, adult reference ranges for THs do not reflect the normal ranges for children at different developmental stages, with TH concentrations highest in infants, still increased in childhood, prior to a decline to adult levels coincident with pubertal development (Corcoran et al. 1977; Kapelari et al., 2008).
In some frog species, there is an analogous peak in THs in tadpoles that starts around embryonic NF stage 56, peaks at stage 62 and the declines to lower levels by stage 56 (Sternberg et al., 2011; Leloup and Buscaglia, 1977).
Additionally, ample evidence is available from studies investigating responses to inhibitors of TH synthesis in fish. For example, Stinckens et al. (2020) showed reduced whole body T4 concentrations in zebrafish larvae exposed to 50 or 100 mg/L methimazole, a potent TPO inhibitor, from immediately after fertilization until 21 or 32 days of age. Exposure to 37 or 111 mg/L propylthiouracil also reduced T4 levels after exposure up to 14, 21 and 32 days in the same study. Walter et al. (2019) showed that propylthiouracil had no effect on T4 levels in 24h old zebrafish, but decreased T4 levels of 72h old zebrafish. This difference is probably due to the onset of embryonic TH production between the age of 24 and 72 hours (Opitz et al., 2011). Stinckens et al. (2016) showed that exposure to 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), an environmentally relevant TPO inhibitor, decreased whole body T4 levels in continuously exposed 5 and 32 day old zebrafish larvae. A high concentration of MBT also decreased whole body T4 levels in 6 day old fathead minnows, but recovery was observed at the age of 21 days although the fish were kept in the exposure medium (Nelson et al., 2016). Crane et al. (2006) showed decreased T4 levels in 28 day old fathead minnows continuously exposed to 32 or 100 µg/L methimazole.
How It Is Measured or Detected
Serum T3 and T4 can be measured as free (unbound) or total (bound + unbound). Free hormone concentrations are clinically considered more direct indicators of T4 and T3 activities in the body, but in animal studies, total T3 and T4 are typically measured. Historically, the most widely used method in toxicology is the radioimmunoassay (RIA). The method is routinely used in rodent endocrine and toxicity studies. The ELISA method is commonly used as a human clinical test method. Analytical determination of iodothyronines (T3, T4, rT3, T2) and their conjugates, through methods employing HPLC, liquid chromatography, immuno luminescence, and mass spectrometry are less common, but are becoming increasingly available (Hornung et al., 2015; DeVito et al., 1999; Baret and Fert, 1989; Spencer, 2013; Samanidou V.F et al., 2000; Rathmann D. et al., 2015 ). In fish early life stages most evidence for the ontogeny of TH synthesis comes from measurements of whole body TH levels using LC-MS techniques (Hornung et al., 2015) are increasingly used to accurately quantify whole body TH levels as a proxy for serum TH levels (Nelson et al., 2016; Stinckens et al., 2016; Stinckens et al., 2020). It is important to note that TH concentrations can be influenced by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors (e.g., circadian rhythms, stress, food intake, housing, noise) (see for example, Döhler et al., 1979).
Any of these measurements should be evaluated for the relationship to the actual endpoint of interest, repeatability, reproducibility, and lower limits of quantification using a fit-for-purpose approach (i.e., different regulatory needs will require different levels of confidence in the AOP). This is of particular significance when assessing the very low levels of THs present in fetal serum. Detection limits of the assay must be compatible with the levels in the biological sample. All three of the methods summarized above would be fit-for-purpose, depending on the number of samples to be evaluated and the associated costs of each method. Both RIA and ELISA measure THs by an indirect methodology, whereas analytical determination is the most direct measurement available. All these methods, particularly RIA, are repeatable and reproducible.
Domain of Applicability
Taxonomic: This KE is plausibly applicable across vertebrates and the overall evidence supporting taxonomic applicability is strong. THs are evolutionarily conserved molecules present in all vertebrate species (Hulbert, 2000; Yen, 2001). Moreover, their crucial role in zebrafish development, embryo-to-larval transition and larval-to-juvenile transition (Thienpont et al., 2011; Liu and Chan, 2002), and amphibian and lamprey metamorphoses is well established (Manzon and Youson, 1997; Yaoita and Brown, 1990; Furlow and Neff, 2006). Their role as environmental messenger via exogenous routes in echinoderms confirms the hypothesis that these molecules are widely distributed among the living organisms (Heyland and Hodin, 2004). However, the role of THs in the different species depends on the expression and function of specific proteins (e.g receptors or enzymes) under TH control and may vary across species and tissues. As such, extrapolation regarding TH action across species and developmental stages should be done with caution.
With few exceptions, vertebrate species have circulating T4 (and T3) that are bound to transport proteins in blood. Clear species differences exist in serum transport proteins (Dohler et al., 1979; Yamauchi and Isihara, 2009). There are three major transport proteins in mammals; thyroid binding globulin (TBG), transthyretin (TTR), and albumin. In adult humans, the percent bound to these proteins is about 75, 15 and 10 percent, respectively (Schussler 2000). In contrast, in adult rats the majority of THs are bound to TTR. Thyroid- binding proteins are developmentally regulated in rats. TBG is expressed in rats until approximately postnatal day (PND) 60, with peak expression occurring during weaning (Savu et al., 1989). However, low levels of TBG persist into adult ages in rats and can be experimentally induced by hypothyroidism, malnutrition, or caloric restriction (Rouaze-Romet et al., 1992). While these species differences impact TH half-life (Capen, 1997) and possibly regulatory feedback mechanisms, there is little information on quantitative dose-response relationships of binding proteins and serum hormones during development across different species. Serum THs are still regarded as the most robust measurable key event causally linked to downstream adverse outcomes.
Life stage: The earliest life stages of teleost fish rely on maternally transferred THs to regulate certain developmental processes until embryonic TH synthesis is active (Power et al., 2001). As a result, T4 levels are not expected to decrease in response to exposure to inhibitors of TH synthesis during these earliest stages of development. In zebrafish, Opitz et al. (2011) showed the formation of a first thyroid follicle at 55 hours post fertilization (hpf), Chang et al. (2012) showed a first significant TH increase at 120 hpf and Walter et al. (2019) showed clear TH production already at 72 hpf but did not analyse time points between 24 and 72 hpf. In fathead minnows, a significant increase of whole body TH levels was already observed between 1 and 2 dpf, which corresponds to the appearance of the thyroid anlage at 35 hpf prior to the first observation of thyroid follicles at 58 hpf (Wabuke-Bunoti and Firling, 1983). It is still uncertain when exactly embryonic TH synthesis is activated and how this determines sensitivity to TH system disruptors.
Sex: The KE is plausibly applicable to both sexes. THs are essential in both sexes and the components of the HPT-axis are identical in both sexes. There can however be sex-dependent differences in the sensitivity to the disruption of TH levels and the magnitude of the response. In humans, females appear more susceptible to hypothyroidism compared to males when exposed to certain halogenated chemicals (Hernandez‐Mariano et al., 2017; Webster et al., 2014). In adult zebrafish, Liu et al. (2019) showed sex-dependent changes in TH levels and mRNA expression of regulatory genes including corticotropin releasing hormone (crh), thyroid stimulating hormone (tsh) and deiodinase 2 after exposure to organophosphate flame retardants. The underlying mechanism of any sex-related differences remains unclear.
Axelrad DA, Baetcke K, Dockins C, Griffiths CW, Hill RN, Murphy PA, Owens N, Simon NB, Teuschler LK. Risk assessment for benefits analysis: framework for analysis of a thyroid-disrupting chemical. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2005 68(11-12):837-55.
Baret A. and Fert V. T4 and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassays using luminescent enhanced xanthine oxidase assay. J Biolumin Chemilumin. 1989. 4(1):149-153
Bartalena L, Robbins J. Thyroid hormone transport proteins. Clin Lab Med. 1993 Sep;13(3):583-98. Bassett JH, Harvey CB, Williams GR. (2003). Mechanisms of thyroid hormone receptor-specific nuclear and extra nuclear actions. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 213:1-11.
Capen CC. Mechanistic data and risk assessment of selected toxic end points of the thyroid gland. Toxicol Pathol. 1997 25(1):39-48.
Carr JA, Patino R. 2011. The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in teleosts and amphibians: Endocrine disruption and its consequences to natural populations. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 170(2):299-312.
Chang J, Wang M, Gui W, Zhao Y, Yu L, Zhu G. 2012. Changes in thyroid hormone levels during zebrafish development. Zoological Science. 29(3):181-184.
Cope RB, Kacew S, Dourson M. A reproductive, developmental and neurobehavioral study following oral exposure of tetrabromobisphenol A on Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicology. 2015 329:49-59.
Corcoran JM, Eastman CJ, Carter JN, Lazarus L. (1977). Circulating thyroid hormone levels in children. Arch Dis Child. 52: 716-720.
Crane HM, Pickford DB, Hutchinson TH, Brown JA. 2006. The effects of methimazole on development of the fathead minnow, pimephales promelas, from embryo to adult. Toxicological Sciences. 93(2):278-285.
Crofton KM. Developmental disruption of thyroid hormone: correlations with hearing dysfunction in rats. Risk Anal. 2004 Dec;24(6):1665-71.
DeVito M, Biegel L, Brouwer A, Brown S, Brucker-Davis F, Cheek AO, Christensen R, Colborn T, Cooke P, Crissman J, Crofton K, Doerge D, Gray E, Hauser P, Hurley P, Kohn M, Lazar J, McMaster S, McClain M, McConnell E, Meier C, Miller R, Tietge J, Tyl R. (1999). Screening methods for thyroid hormone disruptors. Environ Health Perspect. 107:407-415.
Döhler KD, Wong CC, von zur Mühlen A (1979). The rat as model for the study of drug effects on thyroid function: consideration of methodological problems. Pharmacol Ther B. 5:305-18.
Eales JG. (1997). Iodine metabolism and thyroid related functions in organisms lacking thyroid follicles: Are thyroid hormones also vitaminsProc Soc Exp Biol Med. 214:302-317.
Furlow JD, Neff ES. (2006). A developmental switch induced by thyroid hormone: Xenopus laevis metamorphosis. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 17:40–47.
Goldey ES, Crofton KM. Thyroxine replacement attenuates hypothyroxinemia, hearing loss, and motor deficits following developmental exposure to Aroclor 1254 in rats. Toxicol Sci. 1998 45(1):94-10
Goldey ES, Kehn LS, Lau C, Rehnberg GL, Crofton KM. Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254) reduces circulating thyroid hormone concentrations and causes hearing deficits in rats. Tox Appl Pharmacol. 1995 135(1):77-88.
Harris AR, Fang SL, Prosky J, Braverman LE, Vagenakis AG. Decreased outer ring monodeiodination of thyroxine and reverse triiodothyronine in the fetal and neonatal rat. Endocrinology. 1978 Dec;103(6):2216-22
Hernandez-Mariano JA, Torres-Sanchez L, Bassol-Mayagoitia S, Escamilla-Nunez M, Cebrian ME, Villeda-Gutierrez EA, Lopez-Rodriguez G, Felix-Arellano EE, Blanco-Munoz J. 2017. Effect of exposure to p,p '-dde during the first half of pregnancy in the maternal thyroid profile of female residents in a mexican floriculture area. Environmental Research. 156:597-604.
Heyland A, Hodin J. (2004). Heterochronic developmental shift caused by thyroid hormone in larval sand dollars and its implications for phenotypic plasticity and the evolution of non-feeding development. Evolution. 58: 524-538.
Heyland A, Moroz LL. (2005). Cross-kingdom hormonal signaling: an insight from thyroid hormone functions in marine larvae. J Exp Biol. 208:4355-4361.
Hill RN, Crisp TM, Hurley PM, Rosenthal SL, Singh DV. Risk assessment of thyroid follicular cell tumors. Environ Health Perspect. 1998 Aug;106(8):447-57.
Hornung MW, Kosian P, Haselman J, Korte J, Challis K, Macherla C, Nevalainen E, Degitz S (2015) In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo determination of thyroid hormone modulating activity of benzothiazoles. Toxicol Sci 146:254-264.
Hulbert AJ. Thyroid hormones and their effects: a new perspective. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2000 Nov;75(4):519-631. Review.
Kapelari K, Kirchlechner C, Högler W, Schweitzer K, Virgolini I, Moncayo R. 2008. Pediatric reference intervals for thyroid hormone levels from birth to adulthood: a retrospective study. BMC Endocr Disord. 8: 15.
Lau C, Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Rogers JM, Grey BE, Stanton ME, Butenhoff JL, Stevenson LA. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. II: postnatal evaluation. Toxicol Sci. 2003 Aug;74(2):382-92.
Leloup, J., and M. Buscaglia. La triiodothyronine: hormone de la métamorphose des amphibiens. CR Acad Sci 284 (1977): 2261-2263.
Liu J, Liu Y, Barter RA, Klaassen CD.: Alteration of thyroid homeostasis by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase inducers in rats: a dose-response study. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 273, 977-85, 1994
Liu XS, Cai Y, Wang Y, Xu SH, Ji K, Choi K. 2019. Effects of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (tdcpp) and triphenyl phosphate (tpp) on sex-dependent alterations of thyroid hormones in adult zebrafish. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 170:25-32.
Liu YW, Chan WK. 2002. Thyroid hormones are important for embryonic to larval transitory phase in zebrafish. Differentiation. 70(1):36-45.
Manzon RG, Youson JH. (1997). The effects of exogenous thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3), in the presence and absence of potassium perchlorate, on the incidence of metamorphosis and on serum T4 and T3 concentrations in larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L.). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 106:211-220.
McClain RM. Mechanistic considerations for the relevance of animal data on thyroid neoplasia to human risk assessment. Mutat Res. 1995 Dec;333(1-2):131-42
Miller MD, Crofton KM, Rice DC, Zoeller RT. Thyroid-disrupting chemicals: interpreting upstream biomarkers of adverse outcomes. Environ Health Perspect. 2009 117(7):1033-41
Morse DC, Wehler EK, Wesseling W, Koeman JH, Brouwer A. Alterations in rat brain thyroid hormone status following pre- and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254). Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1996 Feb;136(2):269-79.
Nelson K, Schroeder A, Ankley G, Blackwell B, Blanksma C, Degitz S, Flynn K, Jensen K, Johnson R, Kahl M et al. 2016. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole part i: Fathead minnow. Aquatic Toxicology. 173:192-203.
NTP National Toxicology Program.: NTP toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (CAS no. 612-82-8) in F344/N rats (drinking water studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser 390, 1-238, 1991.
O'Connor, J. C., J. C. Cook, et al. (1998). "An ongoing validation of a Tier I screening battery for detecting endocrine-active compounds (EACs)." Toxicol Sci 46(1): 45-60.
O'Connor, J. C., L. G. Davis, et al. (2000). "Detection of dopaminergic modulators in a tier I screening battery for identifying endocrine-active compounds (EACs)." Reprod Toxicol 14(3): 193-205.
Opitz R, Maquet E, Zoenen M, Dadhich R, Costagliola S. 2011. Tsh receptor function is required for normal thyroid differentiation in zebrafish. Molecular Endocrinology. 25(9):1579-1599.
Power DM, Llewellyn L, Faustino M, Nowell MA, Bjornsson BT, Einarsdottir IE, Canario AV, Sweeney GE. 2001. Thyroid hormones in growth and development of fish. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 130(4):447-459.
Rathmann D, Rijntjes E, Lietzow J, Köhrle J. (2015) Quantitative Analysis of Thyroid Hormone Metabolites in Cell Culture Samples Using LC-MS/MS. Eur Thyroid J. Sep;4(Suppl 1):51-8.
Rouaze-Romet M, Savu L, Vranckx R, Bleiberg-Daniel F, Le Moullac B, Gouache P, Nunez EA. 1992. Reexpression of thyroxine-binding globulin in postweaning rats during protein or energy malnutrition. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh).127:441-448.
Samanidou VF, Kourti PV. (2009) Rapid HPLC method for the simultaneous monitoring of duloxetine, venlaflaxine, fluoxetine and paroxetine in biofluids. Bioanalysis. 2009 Aug;1(5):905-17.
Savu L, Vranckx R, Maya M, Gripois D, Blouquit MF, Nunez EA. 1989. Thyroxine-binding globulin and thyroxinebinding prealbumin in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid developing rats. BiochimBiophys Acta. 992:379-384.
Schneider S, Kaufmann W, Strauss V, van Ravenzwaay B. Vinclozolin: a feasibility and sensitivity study of the ILSI-HESI F1-extended one-generation rat reproduction protocol. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011 Feb;59(1):91-100.
Schussler, G.C. (2000). The thyroxine-binding proteins. Thyroid 10:141–149.
Spencer, CA. (2013). Assay of thyroid hormone and related substances. In De Groot, LJ et al. (Eds). Endotext. South Dartmouth, MA
Sternberg RM, Thoemke KR, Korte JJ, Moen SM, Olson JM, Korte L, Tietge JE, Degitz SJ Jr. Control of pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone synthesis and secretion by thyroid hormones during Xenopus metamorphosis. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2011. 173(3):428-37
Stinckens E, Vergauwen L, Blackwell BR, Anldey GT, Villeneuve DL, Knapen D. 2020. Effect of thyroperoxidase and deiodinase inhibition on anterior swim bladder inflation in the zebrafish. Environmental Science & Technology. 54(10):6213-6223.
Stinckens E, Vergauwen L, Schroeder A, Maho W, Blackwell B, Witters H, Blust R, Ankley G, Covaci A, Villeneuve D et al. 2016. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole part ii: Zebrafish. Aquatic Toxicology. 173:204-217.
Taurog A. 2005. Hormone synthesis. In: Werner and Ingbar’s The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text (Braverman LE, Utiger RD, eds). Philadelphia:Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 47–81Walker P, Dubois JD, Dussault JH. Free thyroid hormone concentrations during postnatal development in the rat. Pediatr Res. 1980 Mar;14(3):247-9.
Thienpont B, Tingaud-Sequeira A, Prats E, Barata C, Babin PJ, Raldúa D. Zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable vertebrate model for screening chemicals that impair thyroid hormone synthesis. Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Sep 1;45(17):7525-32.
Wabukebunoti MAN, Firling CE. 1983. The prehatching development of the thyroid-gland of the fathead minnow, pimephales-promelas (rafinesque). General and Comparative Endocrinology. 49(2):320-331.
Walter KM, Miller GW, Chen XP, Yaghoobi B, Puschner B, Lein PJ. 2019. Effects of thyroid hormone disruption on the ontogenetic expression of thyroid hormone signaling genes in developing zebrafish (danio rerio). General and Comparative Endocrinology. 272:20-32.
Webster GM, Venners SA, Mattman A, Martin JW. 2014. Associations between perfluoroalkyl acids (pfass) and maternal thyroid hormones in early pregnancy: A population-based cohort study. Environmental Research. 133:338-347.
Yamauchi K1, Ishihara A. Evolutionary changes to transthyretin: developmentally regulated and tissue-specific gene expression. FEBS J. 2009. 276(19):5357-66.
Yaoita Y, Brown DD. (1990). A correlation of thyroid hormone receptor gene expression with amphibian metamorphosis. Genes Dev. 4:1917-1924.
Yen PM. (2001). Physiological and molecular basis of thyroid hormone action. Physiol Rev. 81:1097-1142.
Zoeller RT, Tan SW, Tyl RW. General background on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2007 Jan-Feb;37(1-2):11-53
Zoeller, R. T., R. Bansal, et al. (2005). "Bisphenol-A, an environmental contaminant that acts as a thyroid hormone receptor antagonist in vitro, increases serum thyroxine, and alters RC3/neurogranin expression in the developing rat brain." Endocrinology 146(2): 607-612.