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Relationship: 2204


A descriptive phrase which clearly defines the two KEs being considered and the sequential relationship between them (i.e., which is upstream, and which is downstream). More help

Decrease, ATP pool leads to Decrease, Cell proliferation

Upstream event
The causing Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help
Downstream event
The responding Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help

Key Event Relationship Overview

The utility of AOPs for regulatory application is defined, to a large extent, by the confidence and precision with which they facilitate extrapolation of data measured at low levels of biological organisation to predicted outcomes at higher levels of organisation and the extent to which they can link biological effect measurements to their specific causes.Within the AOP framework, the predictive relationships that facilitate extrapolation are represented by the KERs. Consequently, the overall WoE for an AOP is a reflection in part, of the level of confidence in the underlying series of KERs it encompasses. Therefore, describing the KERs in an AOP involves assembling and organising the types of information and evidence that defines the scientific basis for inferring the probable change in, or state of, a downstream KE from the known or measured state of an upstream KE. More help

AOPs Referencing Relationship

AOP Name Adjacency Weight of Evidence Quantitative Understanding Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation leading to growth inhibition via decreased cell proliferation adjacent Moderate Moderate You Song (send email) Open for citation & comment WPHA/WNT Endorsed
Mitochondrial ATP synthase antagonism leading to growth inhibition (1) adjacent You Song (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
Mitochondrial complex III antagonism leading to growth inhibition (1) adjacent You Song (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KER.In general, this will be dictated by the more restrictive of the two KEs being linked together by the KER.  More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
zebrafish Danio rerio High NCBI
human Homo sapiens High NCBI

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KER. More help
Sex Evidence
Unspecific High

Life Stage Applicability

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KER.  More help
Term Evidence
Embryo High

Key Event Relationship Description

Provides a concise overview of the information given below as well as addressing details that aren’t inherent in the description of the KEs themselves. More help

This key event relationship describes reduced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) supply leading to reduced cell proliferation (cell growth, division or a combination of these).

Evidence Collection Strategy

Include a description of the approach for identification and assembly of the evidence base for the KER. For evidence identification, include, for example, a description of the sources and dates of information consulted including expert knowledge, databases searched and associated search terms/strings.  Include also a description of study screening criteria and methodology, study quality assessment considerations, the data extraction strategy and links to any repositories/databases of relevant references.Tabular summaries and links to relevant supporting documentation are encouraged, wherever possible. More help

Evidence Supporting this KER

Addresses the scientific evidence supporting KERs in an AOP setting the stage for overall assessment of the AOP. More help

The overall evidence supporting Relationship 2204 is considered moderate.

Biological Plausibility
Addresses the biological rationale for a connection between KEupstream and KEdownstream.  This field can also incorporate additional mechanistic details that help inform the relationship between KEs, this is useful when it is not practical/pragmatic to represent these details as separate KEs due to the difficulty or relative infrequency with which it is likely to be measured.   More help

The biological plausibility of Relationship 2204 is considered high.

Rationale: Cell proliferation is a well-known ATP-dependent process. Cell division processes, such as the mitotic cell cycle uses ATP for chromosome movements and DNA replication (Kingston 1999). The synthetic processes of major cellular components that are necessary for cell structure and growth, such as proteins and lipids, also require sufficient ATP supply (Bonora 2012). Depletion of ATP therefore has a negative impact on these processes.

Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
Addresses inconsistencies or uncertainties in the relationship including the identification of experimental details that may explain apparent deviations from the expected patterns of concordance. More help

There are currently no inconsistencies based on the supporting literature.

Known modulating factors

This table captures specific information on the MF, its properties, how it affects the KER and respective references.1.) What is the modulating factor? Name the factor for which solid evidence exists that it influences this KER. Examples: age, sex, genotype, diet 2.) Details of this modulating factor. Specify which features of this MF are relevant for this KER. Examples: a specific age range or a specific biological age (defined by...); a specific gene mutation or variant, a specific nutrient (deficit or surplus); a sex-specific homone; a certain threshold value (e.g. serum levels of a chemical above...) 3.) Description of how this modulating factor affects this KER. Describe the provable modification of the KER (also quantitatively, if known). Examples: increase or decrease of the magnitude of effect (by a factor of...); change of the time-course of the effect (onset delay by...); alteration of the probability of the effect; increase or decrease of the sensitivity of the downstream effect (by a factor of...) 4.) Provision of supporting scientific evidence for an effect of this MF on this KER. Give a list of references.  More help
Response-response Relationship
Provides sources of data that define the response-response relationships between the KEs.  More help
Information regarding the approximate time-scale of the changes in KEdownstream relative to changes in KEupstream (i.e., do effects on KEdownstream lag those on KEupstream by seconds, minutes, hours, or days?). More help
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Define whether there are known positive or negative feedback mechanisms involved and what is understood about their time-course and homeostatic limits. More help

Domain of Applicability

A free-text section of the KER description that the developers can use to explain their rationale for the taxonomic, life stage, or sex applicability structured terms. More help

Taxonomic applicability

Relationship 2204 is considered applicable to all eukaryotes, as ATP and cell proliferation are known to be tightly coupled in animals, plants and some microorganisms.

Sex applicability

Relationship 2204 is considered applicable to all sexes, as ATP-dependent cell proliferation are used by both males and females in eukaryotes.

Life-stage applicability

Relationship 2204 is considered applicable to all life stages, as ATP-dependent cell proliferation is an essential process for an organism throughout the entire life.


List of the literature that was cited for this KER description. More help

Ahmann FR, Garewal HS, Schifman R, Celniker A, Rodney S. 1987. Intracellular adenosine triphosphate as a measure of human tumor cell viability and drug modulated growth. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology 23:474-480. DOI: 10.1007/BF02628417.

Bonora M, Patergnani S, Rimessi A, De Marchi E, Suski JM, Bononi A, Giorgi C, Marchi S, Missiroli S, Poletti F, Wieckowski MR, Pinton P. 2012. ATP synthesis and storage. Purinergic Signalling 8:343-357. DOI: 10.1007/s11302-012-9305-8.

Crouch SPM, Kozlowski R, Slater KJ, Fletcher J. 1993. The use of ATP bioluminescence as a measure of cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. Journal of Immunological Methods 160:81-88. DOI:

Kingston RE, Narlikar GJ. 1999. ATP-dependent remodeling and acetylation as regulators of chromatin fluidity. Genes Dev 13:2339-2352. DOI: 10.1101/gad.13.18.2339.

Koczor CA, Shokolenko IN, Boyd AK, Balk SP, Wilson GL, Ledoux SP. 2009. Mitochondrial DNA damage initiates a cell cycle arrest by a Chk2-associated mechanism in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem 284:36191-36201. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M109.036020.

Kuruvilla S, Qualls CW, Jr., Tyler RD, Witherspoon SM, Benavides GR, Yoon LW, Dold K, Brown RH, Sangiah S, Morgan KT. 2003. Effects of minimally toxic levels of carbonyl cyanide P-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP), elucidated through differential gene expression with biochemical and morphological correlations. Toxicol Sci 73:348-361. DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfg084.

Nieminen AL, Saylor AK, Herman B, Lemasters JJ. 1994. ATP depletion rather than mitochondrial depolarization mediates hepatocyte killing after metabolic inhibition. Am J Physiol 267:C67-74. DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.1994.267.1.C67.

Sithara T, Arun KB, Syama HP, Reshmitha TR, Nisha P. 2017. Morin inhibits proliferation of SW480 colorectal cancer cells by inducing apoptosis mediated by reactive oxygen species formation and uncoupling of Warburg effect. Frontiers in Pharmacology 8. DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00640.