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Relationship: 2213

Title

The title of the KER should clearly define the two KEs being considered and the sequential relationship between them (i.e., which is upstream and which is downstream). Consequently all KER titles take the form “upstream KE leads to downstream KE”.  More help

Reduced, Posterior swim bladder inflation leads to Increased Mortality

Upstream event
Upstream event in the Key Event Relationship. On the KER page, clicking on the Event name under Upstream Relationship will bring the user to that individual KE page. More help
Downstream event
Downstream event in the Key Event Relationship. On the KER page, clicking on the Event name under Upstream Relationship will bring the user to that individual KE page. More help

Key Event Relationship Overview

The utility of AOPs for regulatory application is defined, to a large extent, by the confidence and precision with which they facilitate extrapolation of data measured at low levels of biological organisation to predicted outcomes at higher levels of organisation and the extent to which they can link biological effect measurements to their specific causes. Within the AOP framework, the predictive relationships that facilitate extrapolation are represented by the KERs. Consequently, the overall WoE for an AOP is a reflection in part, of the level of confidence in the underlying series of KERs it encompasses. Therefore, describing the KERs in an AOP involves assembling and organising the types of information and evidence that defines the scientific basis for inferring the probable change in, or state of, a downstream KE from the known or measured state of an upstream KE. More help

AOPs Referencing Relationship

This table is automatically generated upon addition of a KER to an AOP. All of the AOPs that are linked to this KER will automatically be listed in this subsection. Clicking on the name of the AOP in the table will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Adjacency Weight of Evidence Quantitative Understanding Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
Deiodinase 2 inhibition leading to increased mortality via reduced posterior swim bladder inflation non-adjacent High Low Dries Knapen (send email) Open for adoption EAGMST Under Review
Deiodinase 1 inhibition leading to increased mortality via reduced posterior swim bladder inflation non-adjacent High Low Dries Knapen (send email) Open for adoption EAGMST Under Review

Taxonomic Applicability

Select one or more structured terms that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KER. In general, this will be dictated by the more restrictive of the two KEs being linked together by the KER. Authors can indicate the relevant taxa for this KER in this subsection. The process is similar to what is described for KEs (see pages 30-31 and 37-38 of User Handbook) More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
zebrafish Danio rerio High NCBI
fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Moderate NCBI

Sex Applicability

Authors can indicate the relevant sex for this KER in this subsection. The process is similar to what is described for KEs (see pages 31-32 of the User Handbook). More help
Sex Evidence
Unspecific Moderate

Life Stage Applicability

Authors can indicate the relevant life stage for this KER in this subsection. The process is similar to what is described for KEs (see pages 31-32 of User Handbook). More help
Term Evidence
Embryo High
Larvae High

Key Event Relationship Description

Provide a brief, descriptive summation of the KER. While the title itself is fairly descriptive, this section can provide details that aren’t inherent in the description of the KEs themselves (see page 39 of the User Handbook). This description section can be viewed as providing the increased specificity in the nature of upstream perturbation (KEupstream) that leads to a particular downstream perturbation (KEdownstream), while allowing the KE descriptions to remain generalised so they can be linked to different AOPs. The description is also intended to provide a concise overview for readers who may want a brief summation, without needing to read through the detailed support for the relationship (covered below). Careful attention should be taken to avoid reference to other KEs that are not part of this KER, other KERs or other AOPs. This will ensure that the KER is modular and can be used by other AOPs. More help

Because of its roles in energy sparing and swimming performance, it is expected that failure to inflate the swim bladder would create increased oxygen and energy demands leading to decreased growth, which in turn leads to decreased probability of survival.

Evidence Supporting this KER

Assembly and description of the scientific evidence supporting KERs in an AOP is an important step in the AOP development process that sets the stage for overall assessment of the AOP (see pages 49-56 of the User Handbook). To do this, biological plausibility, empirical support, and the current quantitative understanding of the KER are evaluated with regard to the predictive relationships/associations between defined pairs of KEs as a basis for considering WoE (page 55 of User Handbook). In addition, uncertainties and inconsistencies are considered. More help

There is strong evidence for a link between reduced posterior chamber inflation and increased mortality across different fish species. 

Biological Plausibility
Define, in free text, the biological rationale for a connection between KEupstream and KEdownstream. What are the structural or functional relationships between the KEs? For example, there is a functional relationship between an enzyme’s activity and the product of a reaction it catalyses. Supporting references should be included. However, it is recognised that there may be cases where the biological relationship between two KEs is very well established, to the extent that it is widely accepted and consistently supported by so much literature that it is unnecessary and impractical to cite the relevant primary literature. Citation of review articles or other secondary sources, like text books, may be reasonable in such cases. The primary intent is to provide scientifically credible support for the structural and/or functional relationship between the pair of KEs if one is known. The description of biological plausibility can also incorporate additional mechanistic details that help inform the relationship between KEs, this is useful when it is not practical/pragmatic to represent these details as separate KEs due to the difficulty or relative infrequency with which it is likely to be measured (see page 40 of the User Handbook for further information).   More help

The posterior chamber of the swim bladder has a function in regulating the buoyancy of fish (Roberston et al., 2007). Fish rely on the lipid and gas content in their body to regulate their position within the water column. Efficient regulation of buoyancy is energy sparing and allows for fish to expend less energy in maintaining and changing positions in the water column. Because of its roles in energy sparing and swimming performance, it is expected that failure to inflate the swim bladder would create increased oxygen and energy demands leading to decreased growth, which in turn leads to decreased probability of survival. In particular, these impacts would be expected in non-laboratory environments where fish must expend energy to capture food and avoid predators and where available food is limited. Additionally, fish without a functional swim bladder are severely disadvantaged in terms of foraging and avoiding predators, making the likelihood of surviving smaller.

Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
In addition to outlining the evidence supporting a particular linkage, it is also important to identify inconsistencies or uncertainties in the relationship. Additionally, while there are expected patterns of concordance that support a causal linkage between the KEs in the pair, it is also helpful to identify experimental details that may explain apparent deviations from the expected patterns of concordance. Identification of uncertainties and inconsistencies contribute to evaluation of the overall WoE supporting the AOPs that contain a given KER and to the identification of research gaps that warrant investigation (seep pages 41-42 of the User Handbook).Given that AOPs are intended to support regulatory applications, AOP developers should focus on those inconsistencies or gaps that would have a direct bearing or impact on the confidence in the KER and its use as a basis for inference or extrapolation in a regulatory setting. Uncertainties that may be of academic interest but would have little impact on regulatory application don’t need to be described. In general, this section details evidence that may raise questions regarding the overall validity and predictive utility of the KER (including consideration of both biological plausibility and empirical support). It also contributes along with several other elements to the overall evaluation of the WoE for the KER (see Section 4 of the User Handbook).  More help

Some studies showed an absence of increased mortality after impaied posterior chamber inflation but this is probably caused by the fact that observation was limited to short term effects (e.g., Wang et al., 2020). Observations of absence of mortality often performed at 96/120 hpf in zebrafish, which is immediately after posterior chamber inflation.

Response-response Relationship
This subsection should be used to define sources of data that define the response-response relationships between the KEs. In particular, information regarding the general form of the relationship (e.g., linear, exponential, sigmoidal, threshold, etc.) should be captured if possible. If there are specific mathematical functions or computational models relevant to the KER in question that have been defined, those should also be cited and/or described where possible, along with information concerning the approximate range of certainty with which the state of the KEdownstream can be predicted based on the measured state of the KEupstream (i.e., can it be predicted within a factor of two, or within three orders of magnitude?). For example, a regression equation may reasonably describe the response-response relationship between the two KERs, but that relationship may have only been validated/tested in a single species under steady state exposure conditions. Those types of details would be useful to capture.  More help
Time-scale
This sub-section should be used to provide information regarding the approximate time-scale of the changes in KEdownstream relative to changes in KEupstream (i.e., do effects on KEdownstream lag those on KEupstream by seconds, minutes, hours, or days?). This can be useful information both in terms of modelling the KER, as well as for analyzing the critical or dominant paths through an AOP network (e.g., identification of an AO that could kill an organism in a matter of hours will generally be of higher priority than other potential AOs that take weeks or months to develop). Identification of time-scale can also aid the assessment of temporal concordance. For example, for a KER that operates on a time-scale of days, measurement of both KEs after just hours of exposure in a short-term experiment could lead to incorrect conclusions regarding dose-response or temporal concordance if the time-scale of the upstream to downstream transition was not considered. More help
Known modulating factors
This sub-section presents information regarding modulating factors/variables known to alter the shape of the response-response function that describes the quantitative relationship between the two KEs (for example, an iodine deficient diet causes a significant increase in the slope of the relationship; a particular genotype doubles the sensitivity of KEdownstream to changes in KEupstream). Information on these known modulating factors should be listed in this subsection, along with relevant information regarding the manner in which the modulating factor can be expected to alter the relationship (if known). Note, this section should focus on those modulating factors for which solid evidence supported by relevant data and literature is available. It should NOT list all possible/plausible modulating factors. In this regard, it is useful to bear in mind that many risk assessments conducted through conventional apical guideline testing-based approaches generally consider few if any modulating factors. More help
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
This subsection should define whether there are known positive or negative feedback mechanisms involved and what is understood about their time-course and homeostatic limits? In some cases where feedback processes are measurable and causally linked to the outcome, they should be represented as KEs. However, in most cases these features are expected to predominantly influence the shape of the response-response, time-course, behaviours between selected KEs. For example, if a feedback loop acts as compensatory mechanism that aims to restore homeostasis following initial perturbation of a KE, the feedback loop will directly shape the response-response relationship between the KERs. Given interest in formally identifying these positive or negative feedback, it is recommended that a graphical annotation (page 44) indicating a positive or negative feedback loop is involved in a particular upstream to downstream KE transition (KER) be added to the graphical representation, and that details be provided in this subsection of the KER description (see pages 44-45 of the User Handbook).  More help

Domain of Applicability

As for the KEs, there is also a free-text section of the KER description that the developer can use to explain his/her rationale for the structured terms selected with regard to taxonomic, life stage, or sex applicability, or provide a more generalizable or nuanced description of the applicability domain than may be feasible using standardized terms. More help

Taxonomic: The literature provides strong support for the relevance of this KER for physoclistous fish (e.g., yellow perch, Japanese Medaka) whose inflation occurs at a critical time in development when the fish must gulp air to inflate its swim bladder before the pneumatic duct closes. The relevance to physostomes (such as zebrafish and fathead minnows) that maintain an open pneumatic duct into adulthood is less apparent. The latter likely have greater potential to inflate the swim bladder at some point in development, even if early larval inflation is impaired. However, it is plausible that structural damage that prevented inflation of the organ in a phystostome would be expected to cause similar effects.

Life stage: This KER is applicable to early embry-larval development, which is the period where the posterior swim bladder chamber inflates and larvae start to freely feed. To what extent fish can survive with partly inflated swim bladders during later life stages is unknown.

Sex: This KER is probably not sex-dependent since both females and males rely on the posterior swim bladder chamber to regulate buyoancy. Furthermore, zebrafish are undifferentiated gonochorists since both sexes initially develop an immature ovary (Maack and Segner, 2003). Immature ovary development progresses until approximately the onset of the third week. Later, in female fish immature ovaries continue to develop further, while male fish undergo transformation of ovaries into testes. Final transformation into testes varies among male individuals, however finishes usually around 6 weeks post fertilization. Since the posterior chamber inflates around 5 days post fertilization, when sex differentiation has not started yet, sex differences are expected to play a minor role.

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KER description using the appropriate format. Ideally, the list of references should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide (OECD, 2015). More help

Brown, C. L., Doroshov, S. I., Nunez, J. M., Hadley, C., Vaneenennaam, J., Nishioka, R. S. and Bern, H. A. (1988), Maternal triiodothyronine injections cause increases in swimbladder inflation and survival rates in larval striped bass, Morone saxatilis. J. Exp. Zool., 248: 168–176. doi: 10.1002/jez.1402480207

Chatain B (1994) Abnormal swimbladder development and lordosis in sea bass (Dicentrarcus-labrax) ans sea bream (Sparus-auratus). Aquaculture 119 (4): 371-9

Chatain, Beatrice. "Problems related to the lack of functional swimbladder in intensive rearing of the seabass Dicentrarchus labrax and the sea bream Sparus auratus." Advances in Tropical Aquaculture, Workshop at Tahiti, French Polynesia, 20 Feb-4 Mar 1989. 1989.

Dong W, Liu J, Wei LX, Yang JF, Chernick M, Hinton DE. 2016. Developmental toxicity from exposure to various forms of mercury compounds in medaka fish (oryzias latipes) embryos. Peerj. 4.

Egloff, M. 1996. Failure of swim bladder inflation of perch, Perca fluviatilis, L. found in natural populations. Aquat. Sci. 58(1):15-23.

Gary D. Marty , David E. Hinton & Joseph J. Cech Jr. (1995) Notes: Oxygen Consumption by Larval Japanese Medaka with Inflated or Uninflated Swim Bladders, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 124:4, 623-627, DOI: 10.1577/1548-8659(1995).

Goolish, E. M. and Okutake, K. (1999), Lack of gas bladder inflation by the larvae of zebrafish in the absence of an air-water interface. Journal of Fish Biology, 55: 1054–1063. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1999.tb00740.x

Greg A. Kindschi & Frederic T. Barrows (1993) Survey of Swim Bladder Inflation in Walleyes Reared in Hatchery Production Ponds, The Progressive Fish-Culturist, 55:4,219-223, DOI: 10.1577/1548-8640(1993)055<0219:SOSBII>2.3.CO;2

Horie Y, Chiba T, Takahashi C, Tatarazako N, Iguchi T. 2021. Influence of triphenyltin on morphologic abnormalities and the thyroid hormone system in early-stage zebrafish (danio rerio). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C-Toxicology & Pharmacology. 242.

Kindschi GA, Barrows FT (1993) Survey of swim bladder inflation in walleyes reared in hatchery production ponds. Progressive Fish-Culturist 55 (4): 219-23

Martin-Robichaud, D. J. and Peterson, R. H. (1998), Effects of light intensity, tank colour and photoperiod on swimbladder inflation success in larval striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum). Aquaculture Research, 29: 539–547. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2109.1998.00234.

Mu JL, Chernick M, Dong W, Di Giulio RT, Hinton DE. 2017. Early life co-exposures to a real-world pah mixture and hypoxia result in later life and next generation consequences in medaka (oryzias latipes). Aquatic Toxicology. 190:162-173.

Sergiusz J. Czesny, Brian D. S. Graeb & John M. Dettmers (2005): Ecological Consequences of Swim Bladder Noninflation for Larval Yellow Perch, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 134:4, 1011-1020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1577/T04-016.1

Stinckens, E., Vergauwen, L., Blackwell, B.R., Anldey, G.T., Villeneuve, D.L., Knapen, D., 2020. Effect of Thyroperoxidase and Deiodinase Inhibition on Anterior Swim Bladder Inflation in the Zebrafish. Environmental Science & Technology 54, 6213-6223.

Wang JX, Shi GH, Yao JZ, Sheng N, Cui RN, Su ZB, Guo Y, Dai JY. 2020. Perfluoropolyether carboxylic acids (novel alternatives to pfoa) impair zebrafish posterior swim bladder development via thyroid hormone disruption. Environment International. 134.

Woolley, L. D. and Qin, J. G. (2010), Swimbladder inflation and its implication to the culture of marine finfish larvae. Reviews in Aquaculture, 2: 181–190. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-5131.2010.01035.x