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Reduced, Posterior swim bladder inflation leads to Increased Mortality
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|Deiodinase 2 inhibition leading to increased mortality via reduced posterior swim bladder inflation||non-adjacent||High||Low||Dries Knapen (send email)||Open for adoption||EAGMST Under Review|
|Deiodinase 1 inhibition leading to increased mortality via reduced posterior swim bladder inflation||non-adjacent||High||Low||Dries Knapen (send email)||Open for adoption||EAGMST Under Review|
Life Stage Applicability
Key Event Relationship Description
Because of its roles in energy sparing and swimming performance, it is expected that failure to inflate the swim bladder would create increased oxygen and energy demands leading to decreased growth, which in turn leads to decreased probability of survival.
Evidence Supporting this KER
There is strong evidence for a link between reduced posterior chamber inflation and increased mortality across different fish species.
The posterior chamber of the swim bladder has a function in regulating the buoyancy of fish (Roberston et al., 2007). Fish rely on the lipid and gas content in their body to regulate their position within the water column. Efficient regulation of buoyancy is energy sparing and allows for fish to expend less energy in maintaining and changing positions in the water column. Because of its roles in energy sparing and swimming performance, it is expected that failure to inflate the swim bladder would create increased oxygen and energy demands leading to decreased growth, which in turn leads to decreased probability of survival. In particular, these impacts would be expected in non-laboratory environments where fish must expend energy to capture food and avoid predators and where available food is limited. Additionally, fish without a functional swim bladder are severely disadvantaged in terms of foraging and avoiding predators, making the likelihood of surviving smaller.
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
Some studies showed an absence of increased mortality after impaied posterior chamber inflation but this is probably caused by the fact that observation was limited to short term effects (e.g., Wang et al., 2020). Observations of absence of mortality often performed at 96/120 hpf in zebrafish, which is immediately after posterior chamber inflation.
Known modulating factors
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
Taxonomic: The literature provides strong support for the relevance of this KER for physoclistous fish (e.g., yellow perch, Japanese Medaka) whose inflation occurs at a critical time in development when the fish must gulp air to inflate its swim bladder before the pneumatic duct closes. The relevance to physostomes (such as zebrafish and fathead minnows) that maintain an open pneumatic duct into adulthood is less apparent. The latter likely have greater potential to inflate the swim bladder at some point in development, even if early larval inflation is impaired. However, it is plausible that structural damage that prevented inflation of the organ in a phystostome would be expected to cause similar effects.
Life stage: This KER is applicable to early embry-larval development, which is the period where the posterior swim bladder chamber inflates and larvae start to freely feed. To what extent fish can survive with partly inflated swim bladders during later life stages is unknown.
Sex: This KER is probably not sex-dependent since both females and males rely on the posterior swim bladder chamber to regulate buyoancy. Furthermore, zebrafish are undifferentiated gonochorists since both sexes initially develop an immature ovary (Maack and Segner, 2003). Immature ovary development progresses until approximately the onset of the third week. Later, in female fish immature ovaries continue to develop further, while male fish undergo transformation of ovaries into testes. Final transformation into testes varies among male individuals, however finishes usually around 6 weeks post fertilization. Since the posterior chamber inflates around 5 days post fertilization, when sex differentiation has not started yet, sex differences are expected to play a minor role.
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Stinckens, E., Vergauwen, L., Blackwell, B.R., Anldey, G.T., Villeneuve, D.L., Knapen, D., 2020. Effect of Thyroperoxidase and Deiodinase Inhibition on Anterior Swim Bladder Inflation in the Zebrafish. Environmental Science & Technology 54, 6213-6223.
Wang JX, Shi GH, Yao JZ, Sheng N, Cui RN, Su ZB, Guo Y, Dai JY. 2020. Perfluoropolyether carboxylic acids (novel alternatives to pfoa) impair zebrafish posterior swim bladder development via thyroid hormone disruption. Environment International. 134.
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