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Respiratory distress/arrest leads to Increased Mortality
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|Acetylcholinesterase inhibition leading to acute mortality||adjacent||High||Low||Dan Villeneuve (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome||Under Development|
Life Stage Applicability
Key Event Relationship Description
In cases of lethal cholinergic poisoning, mortality results from asphyxiation due to respiratory failure.
Evidence Supporting this KER
A functioning respiratory system is essential for delivering oxygen to organ tissues throughout an organism. Thus, mortality results following respiratory failure.
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
No known qualitative inconsistencies or uncertainties associated with this relationship.
Known modulating factors
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
Carey JL, Dunn C, Gaspari RJ., Central respiratory failure during acute organophosphate poisoning. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2013 Nov 1;189(2):403-10.
Duangsawasdi M. 1977. Organophosphate insecticide toxicity in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Effects of temperature and investigations on the sites of action. PhD thesis. University of Manitoba, Manitoba, Canada.
Duangsawasdi M, Klaverkamp JF. 1979. Acephate and fenitrothion toxicity in rainbow trout: Effects of temperature stress and investigations on the sites of action. In Aquatic Toxicology, Vol 2, STP 667. ASTM International, Philadelphia, PA, USA, pp 35–51.
Eddleston M, Mohamed F, Davies JO, Eyer P, Worek F, Sheriff MH, Buckley NA. 2006. Respiratory failure in acute organophosphorus pesticide self-poisoning. QJM. 99(8):513-22.
McKim, J.M., Schmieder, P.K., Niemi, G.J., Carlson, R.W., Henry, T.R. 1987. Use of respiratory‐cardiovascular responses of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in identifying acute toxicity syndromes in fish: Part 2. Malathion, carbaryl, acrolein, and benzaldehyde. Environ Toxicol Chem 6:313–328.
Gaspari, R.J., Paydarfar, D. 2007. Pathophysiology of respiratory failure following acute dichlorvos poisoning in a rodent model. Neurotoxicology. 28(3): 664-71.
Kobayashi H, Yuyama A, Kudo M, Matsusaka N. 1983. Effects of organophosphorus compounds, O,O‐dimethyl‐o‐(2,2‐dichlorovinyl)phosphate (DDVP) and O,O‐dimethyl‐o‐(3‐methyl 4‐nitrophenyl)phosphorothioate (fenitrothion), on brain acetylcholine content and acetylcholinesterase activity in Japanese quail. Toxicology 28:219–227.
Peter, J.V., Sudarsan, T.I. and Moran, J.L. 2014. Clinical features of organophosphate poisoning: A review of different classification systems and approaches. Indian J Crit Care Med. 18(11): 735–745.
Rickett, D.L., Glenn, J.F., Beers, E.T. 1986. Central respiratory effects versus neuromuscular actions of nerve agents. Neurotoxicology. 7(1): 225-36.
Wadia, R. S., Sadagopan, C., Amin, R. B., and Sardesai, H.V. 1974. Neurological manifestations of organophosphorus insecticide poisoning. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 37(7): 841–847.
De Candole, C.A., Douglas, W.W., Evans, C.L., Holmes, R., Spencer, K.E., Torrance, R.W., Wilson, K.M. 1953. The failure of respiration in death by anticholinesterase poisoning. Br J Pharmacol Chemother. 8(4):466-75.