Stressor: 256

Title

To create a new stressor, from the Listing Stressors page at https://aopwiki.org/stressors click ‘New stressor.’ This will bring you to a page entitled “New Stressor” where a stressor title can be entered. Click ‘Create stressor’ to create a new Stressor page listing the stressor title at the top. More help

Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins

Stressor Overview

The stressor field is a structured data field that can be used to annotate an AOP with standardised terms identifying stressors known to trigger the MIE/AOP. Most often these are chemical names selected from established chemical ontologies. However, depending on the information available, this could also refer to chemical categories (i.e., groups of chemicals with defined structural features known to trigger the MIE). It can also include non-chemical stressors such as genetic or environmental factors. More help

AOPs Including This Stressor

This table is automatically generated and lists the AOPs associated with this Stressor. More help

Events Including This Stressor

This table is automatically generated and lists the Key Events associated with this Stressor. More help

Chemical Table

The Chemical Table lists chemicals associated with a stressor. This table contains information about the User’s term for a chemical, the DTXID, Preferred name, CAS number, JChem InChIKey, and Indigo InChIKey.To add a chemical associated with a particular stressor, next to the Chemical Table click ‘Add chemical.’ This will redirect you to a page entitled “New Stressor Chemical.’ The dialog box can be used to search for chemical by name, CAS number, JChem InChIKey, and Indigo InChIKey. Searching by these fields will bring forward a drop down list of existing stressor chemicals formatted as  Preferred name, “CAS- preferred name,” “JChem InChIKey – preferred name,” or “Indigo InChIKey- preferred name,” depending on by which field you perform the search. It may take several moments for the drop down list to display. Select an entity from the drop down list and click ‘Add chemical.’ This will return you to the Stressor Page, where the new record should be in the ‘Chemical Table’ on the page.To remove a chemical associated with a particular stressor, in the Chemical Table next to the chemical you wish to delete, click ‘Remove’ and then click 'OK.' The chemical should no longer be visible in the Chemical table. More help

AOP Evidence

This table is automatically generated and includes the AOPs with this associated stressor as well as the evidence term and evidence text from this AOP Stressor. More help
Interference with thyroid serum binding protein transthyretin and subsequent adverse human neurodevelopmental toxicity

Both dioxins and furans have been reported to bind to TTR (Lans et al 1993) and, similar to PCBs, have been reported as thyroid toxicants (Boas et al 2012; Miller et al 2009)

Boas, M., Feldt-Rasmussen, U., & Main, K. M. (2012). Thyroid effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 355(2), 240–248. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2011.09.005

Lans, M. C., Klasson-Wehler, E., Willemsen, M., Meussen, E., Safe, S., & Brouwer, A. (1993). STRUCTURE-DEPENDENT, COMPETITIVE INTERACTION OF HYDROXY-POLYCHLOROBIPHENYLS, -DIBENZO-p-DIOXINS AND -DIBENZOFURANS WITH HUMAN TRANSTHYRETIN. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 88, 7–21.

Miller, M. D., Crofton, K. M., Rice, D. C., & Zoeller, R. T. (2009). Thyroid-disrupting chemicals: Interpreting upstream biomarkers of adverse outcomes. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117(7), 1033–1041. http://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0800247

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation leading to early life stage mortality, via reduced VEGF
  • Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), which includes 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), represent some of the most potent AHR ligands (Denison et al. 2011).
  • When screened for their ability to induce aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity, an indirect measurement of AHR activation, dioxins with chlorine atoms at a minimum of three out of the four lateral ring positions, and with at least one non-chlorinated ring position are the most active (Poland and Glover 1973).
  • Until recently, TCDD was considered to be the most potent dioxin-like compound (DLC) (van den Berg et al. 1998); however, recent reports indicate that 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) is more potent than TCDD in some species of birds (Cohen-Barnhouse et al. 2011; Farmahin et al. 2013; Hervé et al. 2010)
  • TCDD induced cardiotoxicity in developing chick (Heid et al. 2001; Walker et al. 1997; Walker and Catron 2000) and zebrafish (Antkiewicz et al. 2005; Belair et al. 2001; Henry et al. 1997; Plavicki et al. 2013) embryos.
  • Kopf and Walker (2009) provide a concise overview of DLC induced heart defects in fish, birds and mammals.

References:

Denison, M. S., Soshilov, A. A., He, G., DeGroot, D. E., and Zhao, B. (2011). Exactly the same but different: promiscuity and diversity in the molecular mechanisms of action of the aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin) receptor. Toxicol. Sci. 124(1), 1-22.

Poland, A., and Glover, E. (1973). Studies on the mechanism of toxicity of the chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. Environ. Health Perspect. 5, 245-251.

van den Berg, M., Birnbaum, L. S., Bosveld, A. T., Brunstrom, B., Cook, P., Feeley, M., Giesy, J. P., Hanberg, A., Hasegawa, R., Kennedy, S. W., Kubiak, T. J., Larsen, J. C., Van Leeuwen, F. X. R., Liem, A. K. D., Nolt, C., Peterson, R. E., Poellinger, L., Safe, S., Schrenk, D., Tillitt, D. E., Tysklind, M., Younes, M., Wærn, F., and Zacharewski, T. R. (1998). Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife. Environ. Health Perspect. 106(12), 775-792.

Cohen-Barnhouse, A. M., Zwiernik, M. J., Link, J. E., Fitzgerald, S. D., Kennedy, S. W., Hervé, J. C., Giesy, J. P., Wiseman, S. B., Yang, Y., Jones, P. D., Wan, Y., Collins, B., Newsted, J. L., Kay, D. P., and Bursian, S. J. (2011b). Sensitivity of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), Common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos to in ovo exposure to TCDD, PeCDF, and TCDF. Toxicol. Sci. 119(1), 93-103.

Farmahin, R., Manning, G. E., Crump, D., Wu, D., Mundy, L. J., Jones, S. P., Hahn, M. E., Karchner, S. I., Giesy, J. P., Bursian, S. J., Zwiernik, M. J., Fredricks, T. B., and Kennedy, S. W. (2013). Amino acid sequence of the ligand binding domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) predicts sensitivity of wild birds to effects of dioxin-like compounds. Toxicol. Sci. 131(1), 139-152.

Hervé, J. C., Crump, D. L., McLaren, K. K., Giesy, J. P., Zwiernik, M. J., Bursian, S. J., and Kennedy, S. W. (2010). 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran is a more potent cytochrome P4501A inducer than 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in herring gull hepatocyte cultures. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 29(9), 2088-2095.

Heid, S. E., Walker, M. K., and Swanson, H. I. (2001). Correlation of cardiotoxicity mediated by halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons to aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation. Toxicol. Sci 61(1), 187-196.

Walker, M. K., and Catron, T. F. (2000). Characterization of cardiotoxicity induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related chemicals during early chick embryo development. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 167(3), 210-221.

Walker, M. K., Pollenz, R. S., and Smith, S. M. (1997). Expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR nuclear translocator during chick cardiogenesis is consistent with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced heart defects. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 143(2), 407-419.

Antkiewicz, D. S., Burns, C. G., Carney, S. A., Peterson, R. E., and Heideman, W. (2005). Heart malformation is an early response to TCDD in embryonic zebrafish. Toxicol. Sci. 84(2), 368-377.

Belair, C. D., Peterson, R. E., and Heideman, W. (2001). Disruption of erythropoiesis by dioxin in the zebrafish. Dev. Dyn. 222(4), 581-594.

Henry, T. R., Spitsbergen, J. M., Hornung, M. W., Abnet, C. C., and Peterson, R. E. (1997). Early life stage toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 142(1), 56-68.

Plavicki, J., Hofsteen, P., Peterson, R. E., and Heideman, W. (2013). Dioxin inhibits zebrafish epicardium and proepicardium development. Toxicol. Sci. 131(2), 558-567.

Kopf, P. G., and Walker, M. K. (2009). Overview of developmental heart defects by dioxins, PCBs, and pesticides. J. Environ. Sci. Health C. Environ. Carcinog. Ecotoxicol. Rev. 27(4), 276-285.

Event Evidence

This table is automatically generated and includes the Events with this associated stressor as well as the evidence text from this Event Stressor. More help

Stressor Info

Text sections under this subheading include the Chemical/Category Description and Characterization of Exposure. More help
Chemical/Category Description
To edit the Chemical/Category Description” section, on a KER page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “Chemical/Category Description” section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “Chemical/Category Description”  section on the page. More help
Characterization of Exposure
To edit the “Characterization of Exposure” section, on a Stressor page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “Characterization of Exposure”  section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “Characterization of Exposure” section on the page. More help

References

List of the literature that was cited for this Stressor description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide (https://www.oecd.org/about/publishing/OECD-Style-Guide-Third-Edition.pdf) (OECD, 2015).To edit the “References” section, on a Stressor page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “References” section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “References” section on the page. More help