AOPs Including This Stressor
|Latent Transforming Growth Factor beta1 activation leads to pulmonary fibrosis||Strong|
Events Including This StressorThis table is automatically generated and lists KE’s including this stressor.
Chemical TableThe Chemical Table lists chemicals associated with a stressor. This table contains information about the User’s term for a chemical, the DTXID, Preferred name, CAS number, JChem InChIKey, and Indigo InChIKey. Instructions To add a chemical associated with a particular stressor, next to the Chemical Table click ‘Add chemical.’ This will redirect you to a page entitled “New Stressor Chemical.’ The dialog box can be used to search for chemical by name, CAS number, JChem InChIKey, and Indigo InChIKey. Searching by these fields will bring forward a drop down list of existing stressor chemicals formatted as “CAS- preferred name” “JChem InChIKey – preferred name” or “Indigo InChIKey- preferred name” depending on which field you perform the search. Select an entity from the drop down list and click ‘Add chemical.’ This will return you to the Stressor Page, where the new record should be in the ‘Chemical Table’ on the page.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are high aspect ratio nanomaterials (HARNs) that have a diameter less than 100 nm whereas the length may vary (1). CNTs are made of graphene sheets that have been rolled via thermal elimination of carbon atoms from carbon sources or carbon-bearing compounds. These CNTs can be subdivided in two subtypes: single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). SWCNTs are single-layer graphite rolls, and MWCNTs comprise of several layers of graphite (2–4).
A rapid increase of the production of CNT materials have led to a lot of research that is focused on the toxicological effects of CNTs, primarily on induction of acute inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis (2,3,5–9).
This table is automatically generated and includes the Events with this associated stressor as well as the evidence text from this Event Stressor.
Chemical/Category DescriptionInstructions To edit the “ Stressor Description” section, on a KER page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.” Scroll down to the “Stressor Description” section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page. The new text should appear under the “Stressor Description” section on the page.
Characterization of ExposureInstructions To edit the “Characterization of Exposure” section, on a Stressor page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.” Scroll down to the “Characterization of Exposure” section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page. The new text should appear under the “Characterization of Exposure” section on the page.
1. Nanotechnologies – Part 2: Guide to safe handling and disposal of manufactured nanomaterials PUBLISHED DOCUMENT. [cited 2017 Aug 9]; Available from: http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/pls/portallive/docs/1/34683696.PDF
2. Manke A, Wang L, Rojanasakul Y. Pulmonary toxicity and fibrogenic response of carbon nanotubes. Toxicol Mech Methods [Internet]. 2013 Mar [cited 2017 Aug 8];23(3):196–206. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23194015
3. Hussain S, Sangtian S, Anderson SM, Snyder RJ, Marshburn JD, Rice AB, et al. Inflammasome activation in airway epithelial cells after multi-walled carbon nanotube exposure mediates a profibrotic response in lung fibroblasts. Part Fibre Toxicol [Internet]. 2014 Jun 10 [cited 2017 Aug 9];11:28. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24915862
4. Sinha N, Yeow JTW. Carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications. IEEE Trans Nanobioscience [Internet]. 2005 Jun [cited 2017 Aug 9];4(2):180–95. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16117026
5. Dong J, Ma Q. Myofibroblasts and lung fibrosis induced by carbon nanotube exposure. Part Fibre Toxicol [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2017 Aug 8];13(1):60. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27814727
6. Labib S, Williams A, Yauk CL, Nikota JK, Wallin H, Vogel U, et al. Nano-risk Science: application of toxicogenomics in an adverse outcome pathway framework for risk assessment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Part Fibre Toxicol [Internet]. 2016 Mar 15 [cited 2017 Aug 8];13:15. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26979667
7. Vietti G, Ibouraadaten S, Palmai-Pallag M, Yakoub Y, Bailly C, Fenoglio I, et al. Towards predicting the lung fibrogenic activity of nanomaterials: experimental validation of an in vitro fibroblast proliferation assay. Part Fibre Toxicol [Internet]. 2013 Jun 10 [cited 2017 Aug 8];10(1):52. Available from: http://particleandfibretoxicology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-8977-10-52
8. Oberdörster G, Castranova V, Asgharian B, Sayre P, Wallin H, Vogel U, et al. Inhalation Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) and Carbon Nanofibers (CNF): Methodology and Dosimetry. J Toxicol Environ Heal Part B [Internet]. 2015 May 19 [cited 2017 Aug 8];18(3–4):121–212. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10937404.2015.1051611
9. Ali A, Suhail M, Mathew S, Shah MA, Harakeh SM, Ahmad S, et al. Nanomaterial Induced Immune Responses and Cytotoxicity. J Nanosci Nanotechnol [Internet]. 2016 Jan [cited 2017 Aug 9];16(1):40–57. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27398432