AOPs Including This Stressor
Events Including This Stressor
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are high aspect ratio nanomaterials (HARNs) that have a diameter less than 100 nm whereas the length may vary (1). CNTs are made of graphene sheets that have been rolled via thermal elimination of carbon atoms from carbon sources or carbon-bearing compounds. These CNTs can be subdivided in two subtypes: single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). SWCNTs are single-layer graphite rolls, and MWCNTs comprise of several layers of graphite (2–4).
A rapid increase of the production of CNT materials have led to a lot of research that is focused on the toxicological effects of CNTs, primarily on induction of acute inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis (2,3,5–9).
Secretion of inflammatory cytokines after cellular sensing of the stressor leading to plaque progression
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Characterization of Exposure
1. Nanotechnologies – Part 2: Guide to safe handling and disposal of manufactured nanomaterials PUBLISHED DOCUMENT. [cited 2017 Aug 9]; Available from: http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/pls/portallive/docs/1/34683696.PDF
2. Manke A, Wang L, Rojanasakul Y. Pulmonary toxicity and fibrogenic response of carbon nanotubes. Toxicol Mech Methods [Internet]. 2013 Mar [cited 2017 Aug 8];23(3):196–206. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23194015
3. Hussain S, Sangtian S, Anderson SM, Snyder RJ, Marshburn JD, Rice AB, et al. Inflammasome activation in airway epithelial cells after multi-walled carbon nanotube exposure mediates a profibrotic response in lung fibroblasts. Part Fibre Toxicol [Internet]. 2014 Jun 10 [cited 2017 Aug 9];11:28. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24915862
4. Sinha N, Yeow JTW. Carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications. IEEE Trans Nanobioscience [Internet]. 2005 Jun [cited 2017 Aug 9];4(2):180–95. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16117026
5. Dong J, Ma Q. Myofibroblasts and lung fibrosis induced by carbon nanotube exposure. Part Fibre Toxicol [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2017 Aug 8];13(1):60. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27814727
6. Labib S, Williams A, Yauk CL, Nikota JK, Wallin H, Vogel U, et al. Nano-risk Science: application of toxicogenomics in an adverse outcome pathway framework for risk assessment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Part Fibre Toxicol [Internet]. 2016 Mar 15 [cited 2017 Aug 8];13:15. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26979667
7. Vietti G, Ibouraadaten S, Palmai-Pallag M, Yakoub Y, Bailly C, Fenoglio I, et al. Towards predicting the lung fibrogenic activity of nanomaterials: experimental validation of an in vitro fibroblast proliferation assay. Part Fibre Toxicol [Internet]. 2013 Jun 10 [cited 2017 Aug 8];10(1):52. Available from: http://particleandfibretoxicology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-8977-10-52
8. Oberdörster G, Castranova V, Asgharian B, Sayre P, Wallin H, Vogel U, et al. Inhalation Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) and Carbon Nanofibers (CNF): Methodology and Dosimetry. J Toxicol Environ Heal Part B [Internet]. 2015 May 19 [cited 2017 Aug 8];18(3–4):121–212. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10937404.2015.1051611
9. Ali A, Suhail M, Mathew S, Shah MA, Harakeh SM, Ahmad S, et al. Nanomaterial Induced Immune Responses and Cytotoxicity. J Nanosci Nanotechnol [Internet]. 2016 Jan [cited 2017 Aug 9];16(1):40–57. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27398432