API

Event: 10

Key Event Title

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Accumulation, Acetylcholine in synapses

Short name

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Accumulation, Acetylcholine in synapses

Key Event Component

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Process Object Action
acetylcholine increased

Key Event Overview


AOPs Including This Key Event

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AOP Name Role of event in AOP
Acetylcholinesterase inhibition leading to acute mortality KeyEvent

Stressors

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Level of Biological Organization

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Biological Organization
Cellular

Cell term

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Cell term
eukaryotic cell


Organ term

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Taxonomic Applicability

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Life Stages

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Sex Applicability

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How This Key Event Works

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  • Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that is stored in nerve endings at cholinergic synapses in the central sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems (Soreq and Seidman, 2001; Lushington 2006).
  • Aceytlcholine can bind multiple types of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. The downstream consequences of those events are tissue and receptor-specific.
  • Aceytlcholine can play an excitatory or inhibitory role in neurotransmission depending on context.
    • At neuromuscular junctions, its role is primarily excitatory, leading to muscle contraction.
    • In cardiac tissue, its role is primarily inhibitory, leading to reduced contraction and lower heart rate.

How It Is Measured or Detected

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Acetylcholine can be measured using several techniques including the Hestrin method (Augustinsson 1957), molecular probes (e.g., Amplex Red Assay kit - http://tools.lifetechnologies.com/content/sfs/manuals/mp12217.pdf), or via microdialysis techniques (Zapata et al., 2009).


Evidence Supporting Taxonomic Applicability

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Acetylcholine and cholinergic receptors are found in invertebrate and vertebrate species.


References

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  • Augustinsson, K.B. 1957. In: Glick,D.(Ed.); Methods of Biochemical Analysis, Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, NY.
  • Zapata, A., V.I. Chefer, T.S. Shippenberg, and L. Denoroy. 2009. Detection and quantification of neurotransmitters in dialysates. Curr. Protoc. Neurosci. Chapter 7:Unit 7.4.1-30.