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Event: 1388

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

Dopamine release in the brain, decreased

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. More help
Dopamine release in the brain, decreased
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Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. More help
Level of Biological Organization
Tissue

Organ term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; https://aopwiki.org/info_pages/2/info_linked_pages/7#List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
Inhibition of CYP7B leads to decreased locomotor activity KeyEvent Florence Pagé-Larivière (send email) Not under active development
Inhibition of CYP7B activity leads to decreased sexual behavior KeyEvent Florence Pagé-Larivière (send email) Not under active development

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Vertebrates Vertebrates NCBI

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help
Life stage Evidence
All life stages

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KE. More help
Term Evidence
Mixed High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help

Dopamine is a monoamine, catecholaminergic neurotransmitter synthesized in the brain and the kidney from precursor L-DOPA (Carlsson et al., 1957). It is synthesized in neuron cells, stored in vesicules nearby the synaps, and is released into the synaptic cleft after excitation of the neuron. Once released, it can bind D1-like or D2-like G protein receptor which have different effects (Stoof and Kebabia, 1984; Vallender et al., 2010).

It is conserved among vertabrates and regulates neural activity, behavior and gene expression. The main impacts are related to voluntary movement, feeding, and reward.   

In birds, fish, and other vertebrates, dopaminergic neurons located in mesencephalic region (VTA, SN) project to the telencephalon, a region of the brain rich in D1 and D2 receptors (Hara et al., 2007; Ball et al., 1995; Levens et al., 2000).  

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help

In vitro

To measure the ability of a molecule to stimulate dopamine release, brain can be incubated in physiological saline in presence of a presumptive activator (e.g. 7α-hydroxypregnenolone, a neurosteroid) and dopamine concentration in saline is measured by HPLC-ECD (Matsunaga et al., 2004). 

In vivo

To measure the concentration of dopamine in the brain in vivo, freshly collected brain can be homogenized and dopamine concentration can be analyzed using HPLC-ECD (ECD-300, Eicom).

Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help

Dopamine is used as a neurotransmitter in multicellular animals (Barron et al., 2010). Across a wide range of vertebrates, dopamine has an "activating" effect on behavior-switching and response selection, comparable to its effect in mammals. 

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help

Barron, A.B., Sovik, E., and Cornish, J.L. (2010). The roles of dopamine and related compounds in reward-seeking behavior across animal phyla. Front Behav Neurosci 4, 163.

Carlsson, A., Lindqvist, M., and Magnusson, T. (1957). 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan as reserpine antagonists. Nature 180, 1200.

Matsunaga, M., Ukena, K., Baulieu, E.E., and Tsutsui, K. (2004). 7alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone acts as a neuronal activator to stimulate locomotor activity of breeding newts by means of the dopaminergic system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 17282-17287.

Stoof, J.C., and Kebabian, J.W. (1984). Two dopamine receptors: biochemistry, physiology and pharmacology. Life Sci 35, 2281-2296.

Vallender, E.J., Xie, Z., Westmoreland, S.V., and Miller, G.M. (2010). Functional evolution of the trace amine associated receptors in mammals and the loss of TAAR1 in dogs. BMC Evol Biol 10, 51.