API

Event: 1388

Key Event Title

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Dopamine release in the brain, decreased

Short name

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Dopamine release in the brain, decreased

Biological Context

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Level of Biological Organization
Tissue


Organ term

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Key Event Components

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Process Object Action

Key Event Overview


AOPs Including This Key Event

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Stressors

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Taxonomic Applicability

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Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Vertebrates Vertebrates NCBI

Life Stages

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Life stage Evidence
All life stages

Sex Applicability

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Term Evidence
Mixed High

Key Event Description

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Dopamine is a monoamine, catecholaminergic neurotransmitter synthesized in the brain and the kidney from precursor L-DOPA (Carlsson et al., 1957). It is synthesized in neuron cells, stored in vesicules nearby the synaps, and is released into the synaptic cleft after excitation of the neuron. Once released, it can bind D1-like or D2-like G protein receptor which have different effects (Stoof and Kebabia, 1984; Vallender et al., 2010).

It is conserved among vertabrates and regulates neural activity, behavior and gene expression. The main impacts are related to voluntary movement, feeding, and reward.   

In birds, fish, and other vertebrates, dopaminergic neurons located in mesencephalic region (VTA, SN) project to the telencephalon, a region of the brain rich in D1 and D2 receptors (Hara et al., 2007; Ball et al., 1995; Levens et al., 2000).  


How It Is Measured or Detected

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In vitro

To measure the ability of a molecule to stimulate dopamine release, brain can be incubated in physiological saline in presence of a presumptive activator (e.g. 7α-hydroxypregnenolone, a neurosteroid) and dopamine concentration in saline is measured by HPLC-ECD (Matsunaga et al., 2004). 

In vivo

To measure the concentration of dopamine in the brain in vivo, freshly collected brain can be homogenized and dopamine concentration can be analyzed using HPLC-ECD (ECD-300, Eicom).


Domain of Applicability

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Dopamine is used as a neurotransmitter in multicellular animals (Barron et al., 2010). Across a wide range of vertebrates, dopamine has an "activating" effect on behavior-switching and response selection, comparable to its effect in mammals. 


References

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Barron, A.B., Sovik, E., and Cornish, J.L. (2010). The roles of dopamine and related compounds in reward-seeking behavior across animal phyla. Front Behav Neurosci 4, 163.

Carlsson, A., Lindqvist, M., and Magnusson, T. (1957). 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan as reserpine antagonists. Nature 180, 1200.

Matsunaga, M., Ukena, K., Baulieu, E.E., and Tsutsui, K. (2004). 7alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone acts as a neuronal activator to stimulate locomotor activity of breeding newts by means of the dopaminergic system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 17282-17287.

Stoof, J.C., and Kebabian, J.W. (1984). Two dopamine receptors: biochemistry, physiology and pharmacology. Life Sci 35, 2281-2296.

Vallender, E.J., Xie, Z., Westmoreland, S.V., and Miller, G.M. (2010). Functional evolution of the trace amine associated receptors in mammals and the loss of TAAR1 in dogs. BMC Evol Biol 10, 51.