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Key Event Title
Decrease, palatal shelf outgrowth
|Level of Biological Organization|
Key Event Components
|palatal shelves fail to meet at midline||primary palate||decreased|
|abnormal palatal shelf fusion at midline||secondary palate||decreased|
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
|AOP Name||Role of event in AOP||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|Anatagonsim SMO leads to OFC||KeyEvent||Jacob Reynolds (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
Key Event Description
For humans and other mammals, the palate serves as a barrier between the mouth and nasal cavity allowing for simultaneous breathing and eating. The palate consists of an anterior bony hard palate and a posterior muscular soft palate that closes the nasal airways for swallowing and directs airflow to help in generation of speech (Li, Lan et al. 2017). The palate is divided into primary and secondary portions. The primary palate contains the philtrum and the upper incisor region anterior to the incisive foramen while the secondary palate encompasses the remainder of the hard and soft palate (Bush and Jiang 2012). The secondary palate arises during embryonic development as bilateral outgrowths from the maxillary processes. In mammals, these shelves grow first vertically down the tongue before elevating to a position above the dorsum of the tongue where the two shelves meet and fuse to form an intact palate (Ferguson 1988).
How It Is Measured or Detected
- Palatal shelf outgrowth can be quantified using imaging techniques such as 3D CT scans during development. Insufficient palatal outgrowth will result in cleft palate. The distance between palatal shelves corelating with outgrowth can be measured and quantified for these individuals.
Domain of Applicability
- Sex- There are no known differences in palatal outgrowth in terms of sex.
- Life stages- The palate develops early in embryonic development. This begins between the 6th and 12th week of pregnancy in humans and between day 10.0 and 15 in mice (Okuhara and Iseki 2012).
- Taxonomic- Palatal outgrowth is required for proper palate formation in all vertebrates.
Bush, J. O. and R. Jiang (2012). "Palatogenesis: morphogenetic and molecular mechanisms of secondary palate development." Development 139(2): 231-243.
Ferguson, M. W. (1988). "Palate development." Development 103 Suppl: 41-60.
Li, C., Y. Lan and R. Jiang (2017). "Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Palate Development." J Dent Res 96(11): 1184-1191.
Okuhara, S. and S. Iseki (2012). "Epithelial integrity in palatal shelf elevation." Japanese Dental Science Review 48(1): 18-22.