API

Event: 947

Key Event Title

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Increase, Embryolethality

Short name

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Increase, Embryolethality

Key Event Component

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Process Object Action
embryonic lethality increased

Key Event Overview


AOPs Including This Key Event

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Stressors

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Level of Biological Organization

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Biological Organization
Individual



Taxonomic Applicability

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Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
mammals mammals Strong NCBI
fish fish Strong NCBI
birds Tachycineta bicolor Strong NCBI
Vertebrates Vertebrates Strong NCBI

Life Stage Applicability

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Life stage Evidence
Embryo Strong
Foetal Strong

Sex Applicability

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Term Evidence
Unspecific Strong

How This Key Event Works

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Embryo death at any stage in development prior to birth/hatch is considered embryolethal.


How It Is Measured or Detected

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In birds and fish it may be identified as failure to hatch or lack of movement within the egg when candled; heartbeat monitors are available for identifying viable avian and reptillian eggs (ex. Avitronic's Buddy monitor). In mammals, stillborn or mummified offspring, or an increased rate of resorptions early in pregnancy are all considered embryolethal, and can be detected using ultra-high frequency ultrasound (30-70 MHz; a.k.a. ultrasound biomicroscopy) (Flores et al. 2014).


Evidence Supporting Taxonomic Applicability

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All members of the subphylum vertebrata are susceptible to embryonic death (Weinstein 1999).


Regulatory Examples Using This Adverse Outcome

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Poor embryo survival is an endpoint of major relevance to environmental regulators, as it is likely to lead to population decline.  Early-life stage, acute and chronic test guidlines have been established by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC), and are currently used in risk assessments to set limits for safe exposures.  Aquatic test guidlines are most prevalent and include OECD210, OECD229, EPA850.1400 and ECCC  EPS 1/RM/28 for fish and OECD241 for frogs.


References

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1. Flores, L.E., Hildebrandt, T.B., Kuhl, A.A., and Drews, B. (2014) Early detection and staging of spontaneous embryo resorption by ultrasound biomicroscopy in murine pregnancy. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 12(38). DOI: 10.1186/1477-7827-12-38

2. Weinstein, B. M. (1999). What guides early embryonic blood vessel formation? Dev. Dyn. 215(1), 2-11.