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Tissue resident cell activation leads to Increased pro-inflammatory mediators
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|Protein Alkylation leading to Liver Fibrosis||adjacent||High||Brigitte Landesmann (send email)||Open for citation & comment||TFHA/WNT Endorsed|
|Increased DNA damage leading to increased risk of breast cancer||adjacent||Moderate||Not Specified||Jessica Helm (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite||Under Development|
|Increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) leading to increased risk of breast cancer||adjacent||Moderate||Not Specified||Jessica Helm (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite||Under Development|
Life Stage Applicability
|All life stages||High|
Key Event Relationship Description
Following activation the liver resident macrophages, Kupffer cells (KCs), become a major source for inflammatory mediators including cytokines, chemokines, lysosomal, and proteolytic enzymes and for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and also the main source for TGF-β1, the most potent profibrogenic cytokine. [Luckey and Petersen 2001; Winwood and Arthur 1993]
Expressed TNF-α (Tumor Necrosis Factor -alpha), TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), and FasL (Fas Ligand) are pro-inflammatory active and also capable of inducing death receptor-mediated apoptosis in hepatocytes.
Activated KCs are an important source of ROS like superoxide (generated by NADPH oxidase (NOX). KCs express TNF-α, IL-1 (Interleukin-1) and MCP-1 (monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1), all being mitogens and chemoattractants for HSCs and induce the expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) which further enhances HSCs proliferation. [Kamimura and Tsukamoto, 1995; Li et al.,2008; Kolios et al., 2006; Bataller and Brenner, 2005; Lee and Friedman,2011; Brenner,2009, Fujiwara and Kobayashi, 2005; Kirkham, 2007; Reuter et al., 2010
Evidence Supporting this KER
The functional relationship between these KEs is consistent with biological knowledge. [Kamimura and Tsukamoto, 1995; Li et al.,2008; Kolios et al., 2006; Bataller and Brenner, 2005; Lee and Friedman,2011; Guo and Friedman, 2007; Brenner,2009, Fujiwara and Kobayashi, 2005; Kirkham, 2007; Reuter et al., 2010]
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
Known modulating factors
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
- Bataller, R. and D.A. Brenner (2005), Liver Fibrosis, J.Clin. Invest, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 209-218.
- Brenner, D.A. (2009), Molecular Pathogenesis of Liver Fibrosis, Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc, vol. 120, pp. 361–368.
- Chu, P.S. et al. (2013), C-C motif chemokine receptor 9 positive macrophages activate hepatic stellate cells and promote liver fibrosis in mice, Hepatology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 337-350.
- De Bleser, P.J. et al. (1997), Transforming growth factor-beta gene expression in normal and fibrotic rat liver, J Hepatol, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 886-893.
- Fujiwara, N. and K. Kobayashi (2005), Macrophages in inflammation, Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 281-286.
- Guo, J. and S. L. Friedman (2007), Hepatic fibrogenesis, Semin Liver Dis, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 413-426.
- Kamimura, S. and H. Tsukamoto (1995), Cytokine gene expression by Kupffer cells in experimental alcoholic liver disease, Hepatology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1304-1309.
- Kirkham, P. (2007), Oxidative stress and macrophage function: a failure to resolve the inflammatory response, Biochem Soc Trans, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 284-287.
- Kolios, G., V. Valatas and E. Kouroumalis (2006), Role of Kupffer cells in the pathogenesis of liver disease, World J.Gastroenterol, vol. 12, no. 46, pp. 7413-7420.
- Lee, U.E. and S.L. Friedman (2011), Mechanisms of Hepatic Fibrogenesis, Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 195-206.
- Li, Jing-Ting et al. (2008), Molecular mechanism of hepatic stellate cell activation and antifibrotic therapeutic strategies, J Gastroenterol, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 419–428.
- Luckey, S.W., and D.R. Petersen (2001), Activation of Kupffer cells during the course of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats, Exp Mol Pathol, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 226-240
- Matsuoka, M. and H. Tsukamoto, (1990), Stimulation of hepatic lipocyte collagen production by Kupffer cell-derived transforming growth factor beta: implication for a pathogenetic role in alcoholic liver fibrogenesis, Hepatology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 599-605.
- Reuter, S. et al. (2010), Oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer: how are they linked? Free Radic Biol Med, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 1603-1616.
- Winwood, P.J., and M.J. Arthur (1993), Kupffer cells: their activation and role in animal models of liver injury and human liver disease, Semin Liver Dis, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 50-59.