Upstream eventN/A, Cell injury/death
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|human and other cells in culture||human and other cells in culture||High||NCBI|
Life Stage Applicability
|During brain development, adulthood and aging||High|
Key Event Relationship Description
The pioneering work of Kreutzberg and coworkers (1995, 1996) has shown that neuronal injury leads to neuroinflammation, with microglia and astrocyte reactivities. Several chemokines and chemokines receptors (fraktalkine, CD200) control the neuron-microglia interactions, and a loss of this control can trigger microglial reactivity (Blank and Prinz, 2013; Chapman et al., 2000; Streit et al., 2001). Upon injury causing neuronal death (mainly necrotic), signals termed Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) are released by damaged neurons and promote microglial reactivity (Marin-Teva et al., 2011; Katsumoto et al., 2014). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors that recognize specific pathogen- and danger-associated molecular signatures (PAMPs and DAMPs) and subsequently initiate inflammatory and immune responses. Microglial cells express TLRs, mainly TLR-2, which can detect neuronal cell death (for review, see Hayward and Lee, 2014). TLR-2 functions as a master sentry receptor to detect neuronal death and tissue damage in many different neurological conditions including nerve trans-section injury, traumatic brain injury and hippocampal excitotoxicity (Hayward and Lee, 2014). Astrocytes, the other cellular mediator of neuroinflammation (Ranshoff and Brown, 2012) are also able to sense tissue injury via TLR-3 (Farina et al., 2007; Rossi, 2015).
Evidence Supporting this KER
It is widely accepted that cell/neuronal injury and death lead to neuroinflammation (microglial and astrocyte reactivities) in adult brain. In the developing brain, neuroinflammation was observed after neurodegeneration induced by excitotoxic lesions (Acarin et al., 1997; Dommergues et al., 2003) or after ethanol exposure (Tiwari et al., 2012; Ahmad et al., 2016). It is important to note that physiological activation of microglial cells is observed during normal brain development for removal of apoptotic debris (Ashwell 1990, 1991). But exposure to toxicant (ethanol), excitotoxic insults (kainic acid) or traumatic brain injury during development can also induce apoptosis in hippocampus and cerebral cortex, as measured either by TUNEL, BID or caspase 3 upregulation associated to an inflammatory response, as evidenced by increased level of pro- inflammatory cytokines IL-1b, TNF-a, of NO, of p65 NF-kB or of the marker of astrogliosis, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), suggesting that, during brain development, neuroinflammation can also be triggerred by apoptosis induced by several types of insult (Tiwari and Chopra, 2012; Baratz et al., 2015; Mesuret et al., 2014).
Include consideration of temporal concordance here
In 3D cultures prepared from fetal rat brain cells exposed to Pb (10-6 - 10-4 M for 10 days), Pb-induced neuronal death was evidenced by a decrease of cholinergic and GABAergic markers associated to a decrease in protein content, and was accompanied by microglial and astrocyte reactivities (Zurich et al., 2002). These effects were more pronounced in immature than in differentiated cultures (Zurich et al., 2002). In adult rats, exposure to 100 ppm of Pb for 8 weeks caused neuronal death, evidenced by an increase in apoptosis (TUNEL) that was associated with microglial reactivity and an increase in IL-1b, TNF-a and i-NOS expression (Liu et al., 2012). Acute exposure to Pb (25 mg/kg, ip, for 3 days) increased GFAP and glutamate synthetase expression with impaiment of glutamate uptake and probable neuronal injury (Struzunska, 2000; Struzunska et al., 2001).
It is interesting to note that glial cells and in particular astrocytes are able to accumulate lead, suggesting that thes cells may be also a primary target of lead neurotoxic effects (Zurich et al., 1998; Lindhal et al., 1999).
- Astrogliosis is one of the histopathological findings revealed by the assessment of brains derived from patients diagnosed with Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) (reviewed in Pulido, 2008). In a reference study, where the brain of a patient after acute DomA intoxication has been examined in great detail gliosis has been detected in the overlying cortex, dorsal and ventral septal nuclei, the secondary olfactory areas and the nucleus accumbens (Cendes et al., 1995). Reactive astrogliosis has also been confirmed in the sixth cortical layer and subjacent white matter in the orbital and lateral basal areas, the first and second temporal gyri, the fusiform gyrus, the parietal parasagittal cortex, and the insula (Cendes et al., 1995).
- Adult rats have been assessed seven days after the administration of DomA (2.25 mg/kg i.p.) and revealed astrocytosis identified by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunostaining and activation of microglia by GSI-B4 histochemistry (Appel et al., 1997). More investigators have suggested that DomA can activate microglia (Ananth et al., 2001; Chandrasekaran et al., 2004).
- DomA treatment (2 mg/kg once a day for 3 weeks) in mice significantly stimulates the expression of inflammatory mediators, including IL-1β (1.7 fold increase), TNF-α (2 fold increase), GFAP (1.4 fold increase), Cox-2 (3 fold increase), and iNOS (1.6 fold increase) compared to controls (Lu et al, 2013).
- Adult female and male mice have been injected i.p. with 4mg/kg (LD50) of DomA and Real-time PCR has been performed in the brain derived at 30, 60 and 240 min post-injection. The inflammatory response element cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) has been found to be 8 fold increased at the 30 and 60 min time points and then showed a descent back toward basal expression levels by 240 min (Ryan et al., 2005).
- Adult male rats treated with 2 mg/kg DomA i.p. have been sacrificed after 3 or 7 d and shown that GFAP and lectin staining could identify regions of reactive gliosis within areas of neurodegeneration however observed at higher magnifications compared to the ones used for neurodegeneration (Appel et al., 1997; Scallet et al., 2005).
- At 5 days and 3 months following DomA administration of male Wistar rats, a large number of OX-42 positive microglial cells exhibiting intense immunoreactivity in CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus have been detected. With an antibody against GFAP, immunoreactive astrocytes have been found to be sparsely distributed in the hippocampus derived from DomA treated rats after 3 months' time interval (Ananth et al., 2003). At 5 days after the administration of DomA, GFAP positive astrocytes have been found increased in the hippocampus (Ananth et al., 2003).
Young mice receiving a fish diet (MeHgCl) for 3 months exhibited in cortex a decrease of the chemokine Ccl2 and neuronal death, as measured by a decrease in cell density, as well as microglial reactivity (increase in Iba1-labelled cells) (Godefroy et al., 2012)
Perinatal exposure to MeHgCl (GD7-PD21, 0.5 mg/kg bw/day in drinking water) lead to a delayed decrease (PD 36) of cholinergic muscarinic receptors in cerebellum accompanied by astrogliosis (Roda et al., 2008).
Immature rat brain cell cultures maintained in 3D conditions were exposed to either MeHgCl or HgCl2 (10-9 – 10-6 M, for 10 days). This treatment caused microglial and astrocyte activation without neuronal death, but a reversible decrease of the expression of the neuronal marker MAP2 (Monnet-Tschudi et al., 1996 ; Eskes et al., 2002).
Adult marmoset exposed acutely to 5 mg Hg/kg/day p.o. exhibited apoptosis in occipital cortex, as well as glial reactivity (GFAP and Iba1 increased). Mercury content in occipital cortex was 31 mg/g (Yamamoto et al., 2012).
Monkeys exposed to MeHgCl (50 mg/bw for 6,12,18 months) showed microglial and astrocyte activation without any change in neuronal number. Both astrocyte and microglia accumulated elevated levels of inorganic mercury, suggesting a direct effect of mercury on glial cells (Charleston et al., 1996).
Human LUHMES cells as model of dopaminergic neurons and the human astrocyte cell line CFF-STTG1 were exposed to MeHgCl (0.25 -5 mM), thiomersal (0.25 – 5 mM) or HgCl2 (5-35 mM), what affected their cell viability. Neurons were much more sensitive than astrocytes (Lohner et al., 2015).
A direct activation of rat primary microglial cells and astrocytes was observed after exposure to MeHgCl (10-10-10-6 M, for 5 days). (Eskes et al., 2002).
Astrocyte + microglia in co-cultures exposed to mercury (1-5 mM for 30 min to 6 days) showed lower levels of GSH in microglia than in astrocytes (Ni et al., 2011 ; 2012).
Human primary astrocyte cell line exposed to MeHgCl (1.125 mM) for 24h and 72h did not exhibit an increase of GFAP, but of NfkB after the 72h (Malfa et al., 2014).
Human mast cells (leukemic LAD2, derived from umbilical cord blood) showed an increase of IL-6 release when exposed to HgCl2 (0.1-10 mM, for 10 min to 24h). It is hypothesized that mast cell activation could lead to BBB disruption and to neuroinflammation. (Kempurai et al., 2010).
In prairie voles 10 weeks exposure to 600 ppm HgCl2 in drinking water lead to an increase of TNF-a in hippocampus of male, but not in female (Curtis et al., 2011).
Acrylamide (acrylamide is a common food contaminant generated by heat processing)
Adult mice received 10, 20, 30 mg/kg bw for 4 weeks. The dose of 20 mg/kg bw caused neurological symptoms (ex. cognitive impairment) associated to an increased oxidative stress, a decrease of GSH and glial reactivity (GFAP and Iba1 increased) in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. An increase in TNF-a, IL-1b and i-NOS expression in all 3 brain regions was also observed. (Santhanasabepathy et al., 2015)
Isolated and/or co-cultures of microglial cells or astrocytes treated with acrylamide 0-1mM for 24-96h exhibited an increased release of TNF-a, IL-1b, IL-6 and G-CSF, suggesting a direct effect of acrylamide on glial cells (Zhao et al., 2017a,b).
Neonatal rat astrocytes treated with acrylamide (0.1-1mM) for 7, 11, 15, or 20 days increased their proliferation rate as measured by PCNA staining. Astrocyte proliferation is also a sign of reactivity. (Aschner et al., 2005).
Adult rat received an infusion of acrolein (15, 50, 150 nmoles/0.5 ml) directly in substantia nigra which caused a decrease of Tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining, an increase in caspase 1 and an activation of microglial cells and astrocytes (Wang et al., 2017).
Similar treatment as above induced an increase in lipid peroxidation, of hsp32 and of caspase 1 with an increase in GFAP and in ED1 (marker of macrophagic microglial cells) as well as of IL-1b (Zhao et al., 2017).
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
It is interesting to note that glial cells and in particular astrocytes are able to accumulate lead, suggesting that thes cells may be also a primary target of lead neurotoxic effects (Zurich et al., 1998; Lindhal et al., 1999).
Sobin and coworkers (2013) described a Pb-induced decrease in dentate gyrus volume associated with microglial reactivity at low dose of Pb (30 ppm), but not at high doses (330 ppm), plausibly due to the death of microglial cells at the high dose of Pb.
Pb decreased IL-6 secretion by isolated astrocytes (Qian et al., 2007). Such a decrease was also observed in isolated astrocytes treated with methylmercury, and was reverted in microglia astrocyte co-cultures, suggesting that cell-cell interactions can modify the response to a toxicant and that cultures of a single cell type may not be representative of the organ toxicity (Eskes et al., 2002).
Adult male and female Sprague Dawley rats have received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of DomA (0, 1.0, 1.8 mg/kg) and have been sacrificed 3 h after the treatment. Histopathological analysis of these animals has shown no alterations for GFAP immunostaining in the dorsal hippocampus and olfactory bulb, indicating absence of reactive gliosis (Baron et al., 2013).
The exposed zebrafish from the 36-week treatment with DomA showed no neuroinflammation in brain (Hiolski et al., 2014). At the same time, microarray analysis revealed no significant changes in gfap gene expression, a marker of neuroinflammation and astrocyte activation (Hiolski et al., 2014).
Mouse developmental exposure to 50 mM of HgCl2 in maternal drinking water from GD8 to PD21 did not induce any change in GM-CSF, IFN-g, IL-1b, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70. IL-13, IL-17, MCP1, MIP2 and TNF-a measured by Luminex in brain slices of PD21 and PD70. No sex differences, but brain increase of IgG and increased sociability in females (Zhang et al., 2012).
3D rat brain cell cultures treated for 10 days with HgCl2 or MeHgCl (10-10 - 10-6 M) exhibited increased apotosis measured by TUNEL, but exclusively in immature cultures. The proportion of cells undergoing apoptotis was highest for astrocytes than for neurons. But the apoptotic nuclei were not associated with reactive microglial cells as evidenced by double staining (Monnet-Tschudi, 1998).
A 2 weeks exposure to acrylamide in drinking water (44mg/kg/day) induced behavioral effects, such a decreased in locomotor activity, but with no effect at gene level on neuronal and inflammatory markers analyzed in somatosensory and motor cortex (Bowyer et al., 2009).
Quantitative Understanding of the Linkage
Is it known how much change in the first event is needed to impact the second? Are there known modulators of the response-response relationships? Are there models or extrapolation approaches that help describe those relationships?
Quantitative evalutation of this KER does not exist (gap of knowledge).
Known modulating factors
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
California sea lions that have been exposed to the marine biotoxin DomA developed an acute or chronic toxicosis marked by seizures, whereas histopathological analysis revealed neuroinflammation characterised by gliosis (Kirkley et al., 2014).
Acarin L, González B, Castellano B, Castro AJ. 1997. Quantitative analysis of microglial reaction to a cortical excitotoxic lesion in the early postnatal brain. ExpNeurol 147: 410-417.
Ahmad A, Shah SA, Badshah H, Kim MJ, Ali T, Yoon GH, et al. 2016. Neuroprotection by Vitamin C Against Ethanol-Induced Neuroinflammation Associated Neurodegeneration in the Developing Rat Brain. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 15(3): 360-370.
Ananth C, Thameem DS, Gopalakrishnakone P, Kaur C. Domoic acid-induced neuronal damage in the rat hippocampus: changes in apoptosis related genes (bcl-2, bax, caspase-3) and microglial response. J Neurosci Res., 2001, 66: 177-190.
Ananth C, Gopalakrishnakone P, Kaur C. Induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in activated microglia following domoic acid (DA)-induced neurotoxicity in the rat hippocampus. Neurosci Lett., 2003, 338: 49-52.
Appel NM, Rapoport SI, O’Callaghan JP, Bell JM, Freed LM. Sequelae of parenteral domoic acid administration in rats: comparison of effects on different metabolic markers in brain. Brain Res., 1997, 754: 55-64.
Aschner, M., Wu, Q., Friedman, M.A., 2005. Effects of acrylamide on primary neonatal rat astrocyte functions. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1053, 444-54.
Ashwell K. 1990. Microglia and cell death in the developing mouse cerebellum. DevBrain Res 55: 219-230.
Ashwell K. 1991. The distribution of microglia and cell death in the fetal rat forebrain. DevBrain Res 58: 1-12.
Baratz R, Tweedie D, Wang JY, Rubovitch V, Luo W, Hoffer BJ, et al. 2015. Transiently lowering tumor necrosis factor-alpha synthesis ameliorates neuronal cell loss and cognitive impairments induced by minimal traumatic brain injury in mice. J Neuroinflammation 12: 45.
Baron AW, Rushton SP, Rens N, Morris CM, Blain PG, Judge SJ. Sex differences in effects of low level domoic acid exposure. Neurotoxicology, 2013, 34: 1-8.
Blank T, Prinz M. Microglia as modulators of cognition and neuropsychiatric disorders. Glia, 2013, 61: 62-70.
Bowyer, J.F., et al., 2009. The mRNA expression and histological integrity in rat forebrain motor and sensory regions are minimally affected by acrylamide exposure through drinking water. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 240, 401-11.
Cendes F, Andermann F, Carpenter S, Zatorre RJ, Cashman NR. Temporal lobe epilepsy caused by domoic acid intoxication: evidence for glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in humans. Ann Neurol., 1995, 37: 123-126.
Chandrasekaran A, Ponnambalam G, Kaur C. Domoic acid-induced neurotoxicity in the hippocampus of adult rats. Neurotox Res., 2004, 6:1 05-117.
Chapman GA, Moores K, Harrison D, Campbell CA, Stewart BR, Strijbos PJLM. Fractalkine Cleavage from Neuronal Membrans Represents an Acute Event in Inflammatory Response to Excitotoxic Brain Damage. J Neurosc., 2000, 20 RC87: 1-5.
Charleston JS, Body RL, Bolender RP, Mottet NK, Vahter ME, Burbacher TM: Changes in the number of astrocytes and microglia in the thalamus of the monkey Macaca fascicularis following long-term subclinical methylmercury exposure. NeuroToxicology 1996, 17:127-138.
Thomas Curtis, J., et al., 2011. Chronic inorganic mercury exposure induces sex-specific changes in central TNFalpha expression: importance in autism? Neurosci Lett. 504, 40-4.
Dommergues MA, Plaisant F, Verney C, Gressens P. 2003. Early microglial activation following neonatal excitotoxic brain damage in mice: a potential target for neuroprotection. Neuroscience 121(3): 619-628.
Eskes C, Honegger P, Juillerat-Jeanneret L, Monnet-Tschudi F. 2002. Microglial reaction induced by noncytotoxic methylmercury treatment leads to neuroprotection via interactions with astrocytes and IL-6 release. Glia 37(1): 43-52.
Farina C, Aloisi F, Meinl E. Astrocytes are active players in cerebral innate immunity. Trends Immunol, 2007, 28(3): 138-145.
Godefroy, D., et al., 2012. The chemokine CCL2 protects against methylmercury neurotoxicity. Toxicol Sci. 125, 209-18.
Hayward JH, Lee SJ. A Decade of Research on TLR2 Discovering Its Pivotal Role in Glial Activation and Neuroinflammation in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Experimental Neurobiology, 2014, 23(2): 138-147.
Hiolski EM, Kendrick PS, Frame ER, Myers MS, Bammler TK, Beyer RP, Farin FM, Wilkerson HW, Smith DR, Marcinek DJ, Lefebvre KA., Chronic low-level domoic acid exposure alters gene transcription and impairs mitochondrial function in the CNS. Aquat Toxicol., 2014, 155: 151-159.
Katsumoto A, Lu H, Miranda AS, Ransohoff RM. Ontogeny and functions of central nervous system macrophages. J Immunol., 2014, 193(6): 2615-2621.
Kempuraj, D., et al., 2010. Mercury induces inflammatory mediator release from human mast cells. J Neuroinflammation. 7, 20.
Kirkley KS, Madl JE, Duncan C, Gulland FM, Tjalkens RB. Domoic acid-induced seizures in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are associated with neuroinflammatory brain injury. Aquat Toxicol., 2014, 156C: 259-268.
Kreutzberg GW. Microglia, the first line of defence in brain pathologies. Arzneimttelforsch, 1995, 45: 357-360.
Kreutzberg GW. Microglia : a sensor for pathological events in the CNS. Trends Neurosci., 1996, 19: 312-318.
Lindhal LS, Bird L, Legare ME, Mikeska G, Bratton GR, Tiffany-Castiglioni E. 1999. Differential ability of astroglia and neuronal cells to accumulate lead: Dependence on cell type and on degree of differentiation. ToxSci 50: 236-243.
Liu MC, Liu XQ, Wang W, Shen XF, Che HL, Guo YY, et al., Involvement of microglia activation in the lead induced long-term potentiation impairment. PLoS One, 2012, 7(8): e43924.
Lohren, H., et al., 2015. Toxicity of organic and inorganic mercury species in differentiated human neurons and human astrocytes. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 32, 200-8.
Lu J, Wu DM, Zheng YL, Hu B, Cheng W, Zhang ZF, Li MQ. Troxerutin counteracts domoic acid-induced memory deficits in mice by inhibiting CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β-mediated inflammatory response and oxidative stress. J Immunol., 2013, 190: 3466-3479.
Malfa, G.A., et al., 2014. "Reactive" response evaluation of primary human astrocytes after methylmercury exposure. J Neurosci Res. 92, 95-103.
Marin-Teva JL, Cuadros MA, Martin-Oliva D, Navascues J., Microglia and neuronal cell death. Neuron glia biology, 2011, 7(1): 25-40.
Mesuret G, Engel T, Hessel EV, Sanz-Rodriguez A, Jimenez-Pacheco A, Miras-Portugal MT, et al. 2014. P2X7 receptor inhibition interrupts the progression of seizures in immature rats and reduces hippocampal damage. CNS neuroscience & therapeutics 20(6): 556-564.
Ni, M., et al., 2011. Comparative study on the response of rat primary astrocytes and microglia to methylmercury toxicity. Glia. 59, 810-20.
Ni, M., et al., 2012. Glia and methylmercury neurotoxicity. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 75, 1091-101.
Pulido OM. Domoic acid toxicologic pathology: a review. Mar Drugs, 2008, 6: 180-219.
Qian Y, Zheng Y, Weber D, Tiffany-Castiglioni E. 2007. A 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein is involved in the decrease of interleukin-6 secretion by lead treatment from astrocytes. American journal of physiology Cell physiology 293(3): C897-905.
Ransohoff RM, Brown MA. Innate immunity in the central nervous system. J Clin Invest., 2012, 122(4): 1164-1171.
Roda, E., et al., 2008. Cerebellum cholinergic muscarinic receptor (subtype-2 and -3) and cytoarchitecture after developmental exposure to methylmercury: an immunohistochemical study in rat. J Chem Neuroanat. 35, 285-94.
Rossi D. Astrocyte physiopathology: At the crossroads of intercellular networking, inflammation and cell death. Prog Neurobiol., 2015, 130: 86-120.
Ryan JC, Morey JS, Ramsdell JS, Van Dolah FM. Acute phase gene expression in mice exposed to the marine neurotoxin domoic acid. Neuroscience, 2005, 136: 1121-1132.
Santhanasabapathy, R., et al., 2015. Farnesol quells oxidative stress, reactive gliosis and inflammation during acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity: Behavioral and biochemical evidence. Neuroscience. 308, 212-27.
Scallet AC, Schmued LC, Johannessen JN. Neurohistochemical biomarkers of the marine neurotoxicant, domoic acid. Neurotoxicol Teratol., 2005, 27: 745-752.
Sobin C, Montoya MG, Parisi N, Schaub T, Cervantes M, Armijos RX. 2013. Microglial disruption in young mice with early chronic lead exposure. Toxicol Lett 220(1): 44-52.
Streit WJ, Conde J, Harrison JK. Chemokines and Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging., 2001, 22: 909-913.
Struzynska L. 2000. The protective role of astroglia in the early period of experimental lead toxicity in the rat. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 60(2): 167-173.
Struzynska L, Bubko I, Walski M, Rafalowska U. 2001. Astroglial reaction during the early phase of acute lead toxicity in the adult rat brain. Toxicology 165: 121-131.
Tiwari V, Chopra K. 2012. Attenuation of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and apoptosis by curcumin prevents cognitive deficits in rats postnatally exposed to ethanol. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 224(4): 519-535.
Wang, Y.T., et al., 2017. Acrolein acts as a neurotoxin in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of rat: involvement of alpha-synuclein aggregation and programmed cell death. Sci Rep. 7, 45741.
Yamamoto, M., et al., 2012. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 with methylmercury exposure in the brain of the common marmoset. J Toxicol Sci. 37, 749-63.
Zhang, Y., Bolivar, V.J., Lawrence, D.A., 2012. Developmental exposure to mercury chloride does not impair social behavior of C57BL/6 x BTBR F(1) mice. J Immunotoxicol. 9, 401-10.
Zhao, M., et al., 2017. Effect of acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in a primary astrocytes/microglial co-culture model. Toxicol In Vitro. 39, 119-125.
Zhao, M., et al., 2017. Acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in primary astrocytes and microglia: Roles of the Nrf2-ARE and NF-kappaB pathways. Food Chem Toxicol. 106, 25-35.
Zhao, W.Z., et al., 2017. Neuroprotective Effects of Baicalein on Acrolein-induced Neurotoxicity in the Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic System of Rat Brain. Mol Neurobiol.
Zurich MG, Monnet-Tschudi F, Berode M, Honegger P. 1998. Lead acetate toxicity in vitro: Dependence on the cell composition of the cultures. Toxicol In Vitro 12(2): 191-196.
Zurich M-G, Eskes C, Honegger P, Bérode M, Monnet-Tschudi F. 2002. Maturation-dependent neurotoxicity of lead aceate in vitro: Implication of glial reactions. J Neurosc Res 70: 108-116.