Aop: 48

Title

Each AOP should be given a descriptive title that takes the form “MIE leading to AO”. For example, “Aromatase inhibition [MIE] leading to reproductive dysfunction [AO]” or “Thyroperoxidase inhibition [MIE] leading to decreased cognitive function [AO]”. In cases where the MIE is unknown or undefined, the earliest known KE in the chain (i.e., furthest upstream) should be used in lieu of the MIE and it should be made clear that the stated event is a KE and not the MIE. More help

Binding of agonists to ionotropic glutamate receptors in adult brain causes excitotoxicity that mediates neuronal cell death, contributing to learning and memory impairment.

Short name
A short name should also be provided that succinctly summarises the information from the title. This name should not exceed 90 characters. More help
ionotropic glutamatergic receptors and cognition

Graphical Representation

A graphical summary of the AOP listing all the KEs in sequence, including the MIE (if known) and AO, and the pair-wise relationships (links or KERs) between those KEs should be provided. This is easily achieved using the standard box and arrow AOP diagram (see this page for example). The graphical summary is prepared and uploaded by the user (templates are available) and is often included as part of the proposal when AOP development projects are submitted to the OECD AOP Development Workplan. The graphical representation or AOP diagram provides a useful and concise overview of the KEs that are included in the AOP, and the sequence in which they are linked together. This can aid both the process of development, as well as review and use of the AOP (for more information please see page 19 of the Users' Handbook).If you already have a graphical representation of your AOP in electronic format, simple save it in a standard image format (e.g. jpeg, png) then click ‘Choose File’ under the “Graphical Representation” heading, which is part of the Summary of the AOP section, to select the file that you have just edited. Files must be in jpeg, jpg, gif, png, or bmp format. Click ‘Upload’ to upload the file. You should see the AOP page with the image displayed under the “Graphical Representation” heading. To remove a graphical representation file, click 'Remove' and then click 'OK.'  Your graphic should no longer be displayed on the AOP page. If you do not have a graphical representation of your AOP in electronic format, a template is available to assist you.  Under “Summary of the AOP”, under the “Graphical Representation” heading click on the link “Click to download template for graphical representation.” A Powerpoint template file should download via the default download mechanism for your browser. Click to open this file; it contains a Powerpoint template for an AOP diagram and instructions for editing and saving the diagram. Be sure to save the diagram as jpeg, jpg, gif, png, or bmp format. Once the diagram is edited to its final state, upload the image file as described above. More help

Authors

List the name and affiliation information of the individual(s)/organisation(s) that created/developed the AOP. In the context of the OECD AOP Development Workplan, this would typically be the individuals and organisation that submitted an AOP development proposal to the EAGMST. Significant contributors to the AOP should also be listed. A corresponding author with contact information may be provided here. This author does not need an account on the AOP-KB and can be distinct from the point of contact below. The list of authors will be included in any snapshot made from an AOP. More help

Magdalini Sachana, Sharon Munn, Anna Bal-Price

European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Ispra, Italy

Corresponding author: anna.price@ec.europa.eu

Point of Contact

Indicate the point of contact for the AOP-KB entry itself. This person is responsible for managing the AOP entry in the AOP-KB and controls write access to the page by defining the contributors as described below. Clicking on the name will allow any wiki user to correspond with the point of contact via the email address associated with their user profile in the AOP-KB. This person can be the same as the corresponding author listed in the authors section but isn’t required to be. In cases where the individuals are different, the corresponding author would be the appropriate person to contact for scientific issues whereas the point of contact would be the appropriate person to contact about technical issues with the AOP-KB entry itself. Corresponding authors and the point of contact are encouraged to monitor comments on their AOPs and develop or coordinate responses as appropriate.  More help
Anna Price   (email point of contact)

Contributors

List user names of all  authors contributing to or revising pages in the AOP-KB that are linked to the AOP description. This information is mainly used to control write access to the AOP page and is controlled by the Point of Contact.  More help
  • Anna Price

Status

The status section is used to provide AOP-KB users with information concerning how actively the AOP page is being developed, what type of use or input the authors feel comfortable with given the current level of development, and whether it is part of the OECD AOP Development Workplan and has been reviewed and/or endorsed. “Author Status” is an author defined field that is designated by selecting one of several options from a drop-down menu (Table 3). The “Author Status” field should be changed by the point of contact, as appropriate, as AOP development proceeds. See page 22 of the User Handbook for definitions of selection options. More help
Author status OECD status OECD project SAAOP status
Open for citation & comment TFHA/WNT Endorsed 1.23 Included in OECD Work Plan
This AOP was last modified on April 04, 2019 09:48
The date the AOP was last modified is automatically tracked by the AOP-KB. The date modified field can be used to evaluate how actively the page is under development and how recently the version within the AOP-Wiki has been updated compared to any snapshots that were generated. More help

Revision dates for related pages

Page Revision Date/Time
N/A, Mitochondrial dysfunction 1 March 12, 2018 11:19
Impairment, Learning and memory March 16, 2020 09:20
Cell injury/death September 11, 2020 08:27
N/A, Neurodegeneration February 23, 2021 05:07
Overactivation, NMDARs June 26, 2020 04:38
Increased, Intracellular Calcium overload June 26, 2020 04:45
Decreased, Neuronal network function in adult brain September 16, 2017 10:15
Binding of agonist, Ionotropic glutamate receptors September 16, 2017 10:15
Neuroinflammation February 23, 2021 04:56
Overactivation, NMDARs leads to Increased, Intracellular Calcium overload November 29, 2016 20:08
Cell injury/death leads to N/A, Neurodegeneration November 29, 2016 20:08
Neuroinflammation leads to N/A, Neurodegeneration February 23, 2021 05:47
N/A, Neurodegeneration leads to Neuroinflammation June 13, 2018 09:35
Binding of agonist, Ionotropic glutamate receptors leads to Overactivation, NMDARs November 29, 2016 20:44
Increased, Intracellular Calcium overload leads to N/A, Mitochondrial dysfunction 1 November 29, 2016 20:08
N/A, Mitochondrial dysfunction 1 leads to Cell injury/death November 29, 2016 20:08
Cell injury/death leads to Neuroinflammation November 07, 2019 09:36
Decreased, Neuronal network function in adult brain leads to Impairment, Learning and memory November 29, 2016 20:23
N/A, Neurodegeneration leads to Decreased, Neuronal network function in adult brain November 29, 2016 20:24

Abstract

In the abstract section, authors should provide a concise and informative summation of the AOP under development that can stand-alone from the AOP page. Abstracts should typically be 200-400 words in length (similar to an abstract for a journal article). Suggested content for the abstract includes the following: The background/purpose for initiation of the AOP’s development (if there was a specific intent) A brief description of the MIE, AO, and/or major KEs that define the pathway A short summation of the overall WoE supporting the AOP and identification of major knowledge gaps (if any) If a brief statement about how the AOP may be applied (optional). The aim is to capture the highlights of the AOP and its potential scientific and regulatory relevance More help

Under physiological conditions activation of glutamate ionotropic receptors such as N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDARs), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPARs) and kainate (KARs) is responsible for basal excitatory synaptic transmission and main forms of synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) that are fundamental for learning and memory processes (Schrattenholz and Soskic, 2006). However, sustained (direct or indirect) over-activation of these receptors can induce excitotoxic neuronal cell death. Indeed, mainly increased Ca2+ influx through NMDARs promotes many pathways of toxicity due to generation of free radical species, reduced ATP production, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and protein aggregation. Neuronal injury induced by over-activation of these receptors and the excessive Ca2+ influx is considered an early key event of excitotoxicity. Additionally, the excessive activation of NMDARs has been found to play a significant role in a variety of neurological disorders ranging from acute hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (Barenger et al., 2001) to chronic neurodegenerative diseases (Mehta et al., 2013). The proposed AOP is relevant to adult neurotoxicity testing. A molecular initiating event (MIE) has been defined as a direct binding of agonists to NMDARs or indirect, through prior activation of AMPARs and/or KARs resulting in sustained NMDARs over-activation causing excitotoxic neuronal cell death, mainly in hippocampus and cortex, two brain structures fundamental for learning and memory processes. The AOP is based on the empirical support describing (1) domoic acid (DomA) induced excitotoxicity triggered by indirect (through KARs/AMPARs) NMDARs over-activation leading to impaired learning and memory and (2) glufosinate (GLF) induced excitotoxicity that through direct binding to NMDARs causes convulsions and memory loss (Lanz et al., 2014). GLF is the methylphosphine analog of L-glutamate, used as a component of bactericidal and fungicidal herbicidal. DomA, a natural toxin that accumulates in mussels and shellfish is also an analogue of L-glutamate and among the most prominent features described after human exposure to DomA is memory impairment (Lefebvre and Robertson, 2010). DomA and GLF are described as the examples of the stressors due to large amounts of published data (especially in the case of DomA), however this AOP is relevant to any agonist that directly or indirectly cause NMDARs over-activation. Some of the known agonists selective for the NMDARs are derived from the naturally occurring amino acids such as ibotenic acid, homocysteine and l-aspartate and polyamines like spermidine.

Background (optional)

This optional subsection should be used to provide background information for AOP reviewers and users that is considered helpful in understanding the biology underlying the AOP and the motivation for its development. The background should NOT provide an overview of the AOP, its KEs or KERs, which are captured in more detail below. Examples of potential uses of the optional background section are listed on pages 24-25 of the User Handbook. More help

Summary of the AOP

This section is for information that describes the overall AOP. The information described in section 1 is entered on the upper portion of an AOP page within the AOP-Wiki. This is where some background information may be provided, the structure of the AOP is described, and the KEs and KERs are listed. More help

Events:

Molecular Initiating Events (MIE)
An MIE is a specialised KE that represents the beginning (point of interaction between a stressor and the biological system) of an AOP. More help
Key Events (KE)
This table summarises all of the KEs of the AOP. This table is populated in the AOP-Wiki as KEs are added to the AOP. Each table entry acts as a link to the individual KE description page.  More help
Adverse Outcomes (AO)
An AO is a specialised KE that represents the end (an adverse outcome of regulatory significance) of an AOP.  More help
Sequence Type Event ID Title Short name
1 MIE 875 Binding of agonist, Ionotropic glutamate receptors Binding of agonist, Ionotropic glutamate receptors
2 KE 177 N/A, Mitochondrial dysfunction 1 N/A, Mitochondrial dysfunction 1
3 KE 55 Cell injury/death Cell injury/death
4 KE 352 N/A, Neurodegeneration N/A, Neurodegeneration
5 KE 388 Overactivation, NMDARs Overactivation, NMDARs
6 KE 389 Increased, Intracellular Calcium overload Increased, Intracellular Calcium overload
7 KE 618 Decreased, Neuronal network function in adult brain Decreased, Neuronal network function in adult brain
8 KE 188 Neuroinflammation Neuroinflammation
9 AO 341 Impairment, Learning and memory Impairment, Learning and memory

Relationships Between Two Key Events (Including MIEs and AOs)

This table summarises all of the KERs of the AOP and is populated in the AOP-Wiki as KERs are added to the AOP. Each table entry acts as a link to the individual KER description page.To add a key event relationship click on either Add relationship: events adjacent in sequence or Add relationship: events non-adjacent in sequence.For example, if the intended sequence of KEs for the AOP is [KE1 > KE2 > KE3 > KE4]; relationships between KE1 and KE2; KE2 and KE3; and KE3 and KE4 would be defined using the add relationship: events adjacent in sequence button.  Relationships between KE1 and KE3; KE2 and KE4; or KE1 and KE4, for example, should be created using the add relationship: events non-adjacent button. This helps to both organize the table with regard to which KERs define the main sequence of KEs and those that provide additional supporting evidence and aids computational analysis of AOP networks, where non-adjacent KERs can result in artifacts (see Villeneuve et al. 2018; DOI: 10.1002/etc.4124).After clicking either option, the user will be brought to a new page entitled ‘Add Relationship to AOP.’ To create a new relationship, select an upstream event and a downstream event from the drop down menus. The KER will automatically be designated as either adjacent or non-adjacent depending on the button selected. The fields “Evidence” and “Quantitative understanding” can be selected from the drop-down options at the time of creation of the relationship, or can be added later. See the Users Handbook, page 52 (Assess Evidence Supporting All KERs for guiding questions, etc.).  Click ‘Create [adjacent/non-adjacent] relationship.’  The new relationship should be listed on the AOP page under the heading “Relationships Between Two Key Events (Including MIEs and AOs)”. To edit a key event relationship, click ‘Edit’ next to the name of the relationship you wish to edit. The user will be directed to an Editing Relationship page where they can edit the Evidence, and Quantitative Understanding fields using the drop down menus. Once finished editing, click ‘Update [adjacent/non-adjacent] relationship’ to update these fields and return to the AOP page.To remove a key event relationship to an AOP page, under Summary of the AOP, next to “Relationships Between Two Key Events (Including MIEs and AOs)” click ‘Remove’ The relationship should no longer be listed on the AOP page under the heading “Relationships Between Two Key Events (Including MIEs and AOs)”. More help

Network View

The stressor field is a structured data field that can be used to annotate an AOP with standardised terms identifying stressors known to trigger the MIE/AOP. Most often these are chemical names selected from established chemical ontologies. However, depending on the information available, this could also refer to chemical categories (i.e., groups of chemicals with defined structural features known to trigger the MIE). It can also include non-chemical stressors such as genetic or environmental factors. Although AOPs themselves are not chemical or stressor-specific, linking to stressor terms known to be relevant to different AOPs can aid users in searching for AOPs that may be relevant to a given stressor. More help

Stressors

The stressor field is a structured data field that can be used to annotate an AOP with standardised terms identifying stressors known to trigger the MIE/AOP. Most often these are chemical names selected from established chemical ontologies. However, depending on the information available, this could also refer to chemical categories (i.e., groups of chemicals with defined structural features known to trigger the MIE). It can also include non-chemical stressors such as genetic or environmental factors. Although AOPs themselves are not chemical or stressor-specific, linking to stressor terms known to be relevant to different AOPs can aid users in searching for AOPs that may be relevant to a given stressor. More help

Life Stage Applicability

Identify the life stage for which the KE is known to be applicable. More help
Life stage Evidence
Adults High

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) can be selected. In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
human Homo sapiens High NCBI
mouse Mus musculus High NCBI
rat Rattus norvegicus High NCBI

Sex Applicability

The authors must select from one of the following: Male, female, mixed, asexual, third gender, hermaphrodite, or unspecific. More help
Sex Evidence
Male High
Female High

Overall Assessment of the AOP

This section addresses the relevant biological domain of applicability (i.e., in terms of taxa, sex, life stage, etc.) and WoE for the overall AOP as a basis to consider appropriate regulatory application (e.g., priority setting, testing strategies or risk assessment). The goal of the overall assessment is to provide a high level synthesis and overview of the relative confidence in the AOP and where the significant gaps or weaknesses are (if they exist). Users or readers can drill down into the finer details captured in the KE and KER descriptions, and/or associated summary tables, as appropriate to their needs.Assessment of the AOP is organised into a number of steps. Guidance on pages 59-62 of the User Handbook is available to facilitate assignment of categories of high, moderate, or low confidence for each consideration. While it is not necessary to repeat lengthy text that appears elsewhere in the AOP description (or related KE and KER descriptions), a brief explanation or rationale for the selection of high, moderate, or low confidence should be made. More help

The aim of the present AOP is to construct a linear pathway that captures the KEs and KERs that occur after binding of agonist to NMDA receptor in hippocampal and cortical neurons of adults. The majority of the KEs of the AOP are characterised by MODERATE essentiality for the AO (loss or reduction of cognitive function )or other KEs that follow. The biological plausibility in the majority of KERs is rated STRONG as there is extensive mechanistic understanding. However, the empirical support for the majority of presented KERs cannot be rated high as in most occasions the KEup and KEdown of a KER has not been investigated simultaneously, under the same experimental protocol or not in the suggested brain regions (cortex and hippocampus).

Domain of Applicability

The relevant biological domain(s) of applicability in terms of sex, life-stage, taxa, and other aspects of biological context are defined in this section. Biological domain of applicability is informed by the “Description” and “Biological Domain of Applicability” sections of each KE and KER description (see sections 2G and 3E for details). In essence the taxa/life-stage/sex applicability is defined based on the groups of organisms for which the measurements represented by the KEs can feasibly be measured and the functional and regulatory relationships represented by the KERs are operative.The relevant biological domain of applicability of the AOP as a whole will nearly always be defined based on the most narrowly restricted of its KEs and KERs. For example, if most of the KEs apply to either sex, but one is relevant to females only, the biological domain of applicability of the AOP as a whole would be limited to females. While much of the detail defining the domain of applicability may be found in the individual KE and KER descriptions, the rationale for defining the relevant biological domain of applicability of the overall AOP should be briefly summarised on the AOP page. More help

Life Stage Applicability: This AOP is applicable for adults. However, studies exploring the neurotoxic effects of DomA on the developing nervous system demonstrate that DomA can cause neurobehavioral, biochemical and morphological effects similar to the ones observed in adult animals (reviewed in Costa et al., 2010). The DomA doses required to cause these effects in developing organisms are one to two orders of magnitude lower than those needed for loss or reduction of cognitive function in adults. This difference has been attributed to toxicokinetic and/or toxicodynamic particularities that exist between adults and children.

Taxonomic Applicability: The data used to support the KERs in this AOP derives from experimental studies conducted in primates, rats and mice or cell cultures of similar origin as well as from human epidemiological studies or clinical cases of DomA poisoning. The majority of the KEs in this AOP seem to be highly conserved across species. It remains to be proved if these KERs of the present AOP are also applicable for other species rather than human, primates, rats or mice. Increasing evidence from sea lions exposed to DomA further supports some of the KERs of the present AOP.

Sex Applicability: The majority of the studies addressing the KEs and KERs of this AOP have been carried out mainly in male laboratory animals. Few studies are available in females and some of them compare the effects between females and males. It appears that this AOP is applicable for both females and males.

Essentiality of the Key Events

An important aspect of assessing an AOP is evaluating the essentiality of its KEs. The essentiality of KEs can only be assessed relative to the impact of manipulation of a given KE (e.g., experimentally blocking or exacerbating the event) on the downstream sequence of KEs defined for the AOP. Consequently evidence supporting essentiality is assembled on the AOP page, rather than on the independent KE pages that are meant to stand-alone as modular units without reference to other KEs in the sequence.The nature of experimental evidence that is relevant to assessing essentiality relates to the impact on downstream KEs and the AO if upstream KEs are prevented or modified. This includes: Direct evidence: directly measured experimental support that blocking or preventing a KE prevents or impacts downstream KEs in the pathway in the expected fashion. Indirect evidence: evidence that modulation or attenuation in the magnitude of impact on a specific KE (increased effect or decreased effect) is associated with corresponding changes (increases or decreases) in the magnitude or frequency of one or more downstream KEs.When assembling the support for essentiality of the KEs, authors should organise relevant data in a tabular format. The objective is to summarise briefly the nature and numbers of investigations in which the essentiality of KEs has been experimentally explored either directly or indirectly. See pages 50-51 in the User Handbook for further definitions and clarifications.  More help

1) Essentiality of KE "NMDARs, Overactivation" for the KE "Cell death" is MODERATE. NMDARs play a central role in excitotoxic neuronal injury. Over-activation of these receptors causes disruption of Ca2+ homeostasis that through mitochondrial dysfunction triggers signals leading to apoptotic or necrotic death. However, the ways that cells respond to mitochondrial injury vary and often are considered unclear and controversial (Pivovarova and Andrews, 2010). However, NMDAR antagonists failed to reverse these Ca2+ induced cell deaths, leading to suggestions that NMDAR-independent pathways that involve α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs), acid-sensing channels and transient receptor potential channels might be also responsible for excitotoxic neuronal injury (Pivovarova and Andrews, 2010). Several agonists have higher affinity than NMDA itself but are not relevant for behavioural studies as NMDA activation leads to epilepsy and cell death, a common approach to induce neurotoxic lesions.

2) Essentiality of KE "Calcium influx, Increased" for the KE "Cell death" is MODERATE. Ca2+ plays important role in excitotoxicity but the mechanisms involved in excitotoxic cell death are still debated (Berliocchi et al., 2005). Depending on the extent and the duration of the Ca2+ influx, neurons survive, die through apoptotic mechanisms in case of sustained slow Ca2+ influx, or undergo necrosis when rapid high Ca2+ influx occurs. Over-expression of the endogenous calpain inhibitor, calpastatin, or the calpain-resistant isoform the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 2 (NCX2) prevents Ca2+ overload and protects neurons from excitotoxicity (Bano et al., 2005).

3) Essentiality of KE "Mitochondria dysfunction" for the AO "Impairment of learning and memory" is STRONG. ROS is known to have a negative effect on synaptic plasticity and learning and memory (reviewed in Lynch, 2004). H2O2 inhibits LTP both in vitro and in vivo, which is associated with increased ROS. A negative correlation has been found between ROS concentration in hippocampus and ability of rats to sustain LTP. Administration of antioxidants, vitamins E and C, reverses the inhibitory effects of stress on LTP and prevents the increase of ROS in hippocampus. In transgenic mice that overexpress superoxide dismutase (SOD), the enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of superoxide to H2O2, the LTP in CA1 is inhibited. Intracerebroventricular injection of H2O2, at a concentration which increases ROS levels in hippocampus, impairs LTP that is prevented after pretreatment with the antioxidant phenylarsine oxide. Knocking down Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) in mice, which is an important regulator of mitochondrial function, reverses mitochondrial abnormalities and cognitive impairment induced by DA in mice (Wu et al., 2013).

4) Essentiality of KE "Mitochondria dysfunction" for the KE "Cell death" is MODERATE. There is a considerable number of mitochondrial associated processes that lead to necrotic or apoptotic cell death such as uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), release of pro-apoptotic proteins, activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and proteases such as calpain, increased levels of and delayed Ca2+ de-regulation (Pivovarova and Andrews, 2010). Although the understanding of these mechanisms is clearly established, the cascade of events and the significance of them are less clear (Pivovarova and Andrews, 2010). A significant body of evidence, both clinical and experimental, supports a role for the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in excitotoxicity (reviewed in Pivovarova and Andrews, 2010). However, the effects of cyclosporin A, the classical MPTP inhibitor, on neuronal mitochondria are inconsistent raising doubts about its role in neural cell death. However, ADP/ATP translocator deficiency, which is not essential for MPTP but does regulate pore opening, protects neurons against excitotoxicity. Furthermore, MPTP opening renders neurons vulnerable to excitotoxicity.

Evidence Assessment

The biological plausibility, empirical support, and quantitative understanding from each KER in an AOP are assessed together.  Biological plausibility of each of the KERs in the AOP is the most influential consideration in assessing WoE or degree of confidence in an overall hypothesised AOP for potential regulatory application (Meek et al., 2014; 2014a). Empirical support entails consideration of experimental data in terms of the associations between KEs – namely dose-response concordance and temporal relationships between and across multiple KEs. It is examined most often in studies of dose-response/incidence and temporal relationships for stressors that impact the pathway. While less influential than biological plausibility of the KERs and essentiality of the KEs, empirical support can increase confidence in the relationships included in an AOP. For clarification on how to rate the given empirical support for a KER, as well as examples, see pages 53- 55 of the User Handbook.  More help

The table provides a summary of the biological plausibility and the empirical support for each KER described in this AOP based on "Annex 1: Guidance for assessing relative level of confidence in the overall AOP based on rank ordered elements" found in the User's Handbook.

More information about the evidence that support these KERs and the relevant literature can be found in each KER description.

The main base for the overall scoring is that the empirical support coming from the experiments with one stressor (domoic acid, DomA). However this AOP is not specific for DomA, it is applicable to any chemicals that act as NMDARs agonists.

KERs WoE Biological plausibility Does KEup occurs at lower doses than KEdown? Does KEup occurs at earlier time points than KE down? Is there higher incidence of KEup than of KEdown? Inconsistencies/Uncertainties
Binding of agonist to NMDARs directly leads to NMDARs overactivation Extensive understanding N/A Yes N/A Limited conficting data
NMDARs overactivation directly leads to increased calcium influx Extensive understanding Same dose Yes Not investigated Limited conficting data
Increased calcium influx indirectly leads to mitochondrial dysfunction Extensive understanding Same dose Yes Yes No conflicting data
Mitochondrial dysfunction directly leads to cell death Extensive understanding Same dose Yes Yes Limited conficting data
Cell death leads to Neurodegeneration Extensive understanding Same dose Yes Yes Limited conficting data
Cell death leads to Neuroinflammation Extensive understanding Not investigated Not investigated Not investigated N/A
Neurodegeneration directly leads to Decreased neuronal network function Extensive understanding Not investigated Not investigated Not investigated N/A
Decreased neuronal network function indirectly leads to loss or reduction of cognitive function Scientific understanding is not completely established Not investigated Not investigated Not investigated N/A
 

Quantitative Understanding

Some proof of concept examples to address the WoE considerations for AOPs quantitatively have recently been developed, based on the rank ordering of the relevant Bradford Hill considerations (i.e., biological plausibility, essentiality and empirical support) (Becker et al., 2017; Becker et al, 2015; Collier et al., 2016). Suggested quantitation of the various elements is expert derived, without collective consideration currently of appropriate reporting templates or formal expert engagement. Though not essential, developers may wish to assign comparative quantitative values to the extent of the supporting data based on the three critical Bradford Hill considerations for AOPs, as a basis to contribute to collective experience.Specific attention is also given to how precisely and accurately one can potentially predict an impact on KEdownstream based on some measurement of KEupstream. This is captured in the form of quantitative understanding calls for each KER. See pages 55-56 of the User Handbook for a review of quantitative understanding for KER's. More help

Considerations for Potential Applications of the AOP (optional)

At their discretion, the developer may include in this section discussion of the potential applications of an AOP to support regulatory decision-making. This may include, for example, possible utility for test guideline development or refinement, development of integrated testing and assessment approaches, development of (Q)SARs / or chemical profilers to facilitate the grouping of chemicals for subsequent read-across, screening level hazard assessments or even risk assessment. While it is challenging to foresee all potential regulatory application of AOPs and any application will ultimately lie within the purview of regulatory agencies, potential applications may be apparent as the AOP is being developed, particularly if it was initiated with a particular application in mind. This optional section is intended to provide the developer with an opportunity to suggest potential regulatory applications and describe his or her rationale.To edit the “Considerations for Potential Applications of the AOP” section, on an AOP page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing AOP.” Scroll down to the “Considerations for Potential Applications of the AOP” section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. In the upper right hand menu, click ‘Update AOP’ to save your changes and return to the AOP page or 'Update and continue' to continue editing AOP text sections.  The new text should appear under the “Considerations for Potential Applications of the AOP” section on the AOP page. More help

Exposure to xenobiotics can potentially affect the nervous system resulting in neurobehavioral alterations and/or neurological clinical symptoms. To assess the neurotoxic properties of compounds, current testing largely relies on neurobehavioural tests in laboratory animals, histopathological analysis, neurochemical and occasionally electrophysiological observations. Throughout the years, a significant number of methods have been developed to assess neurobehaviour in laboratory animals and a comprehensive summary of them can be found in OECD Series on testing and assessment, number 20, Guidance Document for Neurotoxicity Testing (2004). This document is considered an essential supplement to a substantial number of already existing OECD Test Guidelines that are applied to gain information on the neurotoxicity properties of chemical compounds. Namely, these are: general Test Guidelines such as single dose toxicity (e.g. OECD 402, 403, 420, 423 and 425), repeated dose toxicity (e.g. OECD 407 and 408), chronic exposure (e.g. OECD 452) as well as Test Guidelines specifically developed for the study of neurotoxicity in adult laboratory animals, such as OECD Test Guideline for Neurotoxicity (424).

Learning and memory is an important endpoint and a wide variety of tests to assess chemical effects on cognitive functions is available and used for the study of neurotoxicity. Some of these tests that allow the appreciation of cognitive function in laboratory animals are: habituation, ethologically based anxiety tests (elevated plus maze test, black and white box test, social interaction test), conditioned taste aversion (CTA), active avoidance, passive avoidance, spatial mazes (Morris water maze, Biel water maze, T-maze), conditional discrimination (simple discrimination, matching to sample), delayed discrimination (delayed matching-to-sample, delayed alternation) and eye-blink conditioning.

The present AOP can potentially provide the basis for development of a mechanistically informed IATA for neurotoxicity. The construction of IATA for predicting neurotoxic effects in adults is expected to make use of more than one AOP within an interconnected network in order to take into consideration all critical biological processes that may contribute to impairment of learning and memory in adults. Through this network, identification of KEs and KERs common across multiple AOPs can emerge that should be considered during IATA construction and that may inform also in vitro assay development. The development of alternative assays would allow screening of chemicals for potential NMDAR activators and reducing the use of in vivo studies.

Results from assays based on the KEs of this AOP can serve to interpret and accept results that derive from non-standard test methods. Omics data from toxicogenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic studies can be interpreted in a structured way using this AOP that is relevant to adult neurotoxicity. Currently learning and memory testing is not required by the OECD TG 424. This AOP could serve as a base for chemical evaluation with potential to cause impairment of learning and memory. The assay development would refer to the identified in this AOP KEs that could form a testing strategy for identifying chemicals with potential to cause cognitive deficit. Finally, this AOP could provide the opportunity to group chemicals using not only chemical properties but also mechanistic information that can later inform data gap filling by read-across and predict neurotoxic properties of a target substance.

References

List the bibliographic references to original papers, books or other documents used to support the AOP. More help

Bano D, Young K.W, Guerin C.J, Lefeuvre R, Rothwell N.J, Naldini L, Rizzuto R, Carafoli E, Nicotera P. Cleavage of the plasma membrane Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in excitotoxicity. Cell, 2005, 120: 275-285.

Berliocchi L, Bano D, Nicotera P. Ca2+ signals and death programmes in neurons. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci., 2005, 360: 2255-2258.

Costa LG, Giordano G, Faustman EM. Domoic acid as a developmental neurotoxin. Neurotoxicology, 2010, 31(5):409-23.

Health Effects Test Guidelines OPPTS 870.6300 Developmental Neurotoxicity Study, US EPA, Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (7101), EPA 712-C-96, 239, 1996, 1-14.

Lynch MA. Long-term potentiation and memory. Physiol Rev. 2004, 84(1):87-136.

OECD (2004) Series on testing and assessment number 20, Guidance document for neurotoxicity testing.

OECD (2007). Test Guideline 426. OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals. Developmental Neurotoxicity Study. http://www.oecd.org/document/55/0,3343,en_2649_34377_2349687_1_1_ 1_1,00.html

OECD (2008) Nr 43 GUIDANCE DOCUMENT ON MAMMALIAN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY TESTING AND ASSESSMENT. ENV/JM/MONO(2008)16

Pivovarova NB, Andrews SB. Calcium-dependent mitochondrial function and dysfunction in neurons. FEBS J., 2010, 277: 3622-3636.

Wu DM, Lu J, Zhang YQ, Zheng YL, Hu B, Cheng W, Zhang ZF, Li MQ. Ursolic acid improves domoic acid-induced cognitive deficits in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol., 2013, 271:127-36.