Key Event Title
|Level of Biological Organization|
Key Event Components
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
|AOP Name||Role of event in AOP|
|Binding of antagonist to NMDARs can lead to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration||AdverseOutcome|
|ionotropic glutamatergic receptors and cognition||KeyEvent|
Key Event Description
The term neurodegeneration is a combination of two words - "neuro," referring to nerve cells and "degeneration," referring to progressive damage. The term "neurodegeneration" can be applied to several conditions that result in the loss of nerve structure and function, and neuronal loss by necrosis and/or apoptosis
Neurodegeneration is a key aspect of a large number of diseases that come under the umbrella of “neurodegenerative diseases" including Huntington's, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. All of these conditions lead to progressive brain damage and neurodegeneration.
Alzheimer's disease is characterised by loss of neurons and synapses in the cerebral cortex and certain subcortical regions, with gross atrophy of the affected regions; symptoms include memory loss.
Parkinson's disease (PD) results from the death of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain substantia nigra pars compacta; symptoms include bradykinesia, rigidity, and resting tremor.
Several observations suggest correlative links between environmental exposure and neurodegenerative diseases, but only few suggest causative links:
Only an extremely small proportion (less than 5%) of neurodegenerative diseases are caused by genetic mutations (Narayan and Dragounov, 2017). The remainders are thought to be caused by the following:
•A build up of toxic proteins in the brain (Evin et al., 2006)
•A loss of mitochondrial function that leads to the oxidative stress and creation of neurotoxic molecules that trigger cell death (apoptotic, necrotic or autophagy)(Cobley et al., 2018)
•Changes in the levels and activities of neurotrophic factors (Kazim and Iqbal, 2016; Machado et al., 2016; Rodrigues et al., 2014)
•Variations in the activity of neural networks (Greicius and Kimmel, 2012)
Protein aggregation: the correlation between neurodegenerative disease and protein aggregation in the brain has long been recognized, but a causal relationship has not been unequivocally established (Lansbury et al., 2006; Kumar et al., 2016). The dynamic nature of protein aggregation mean that, despite progress in understanding its mechanisms, its relationship to disease is difficult to determine in the laboratory.
Nevertheless, drug candidates that inhibit aggregation are now being tested in the clinic. These have the potential to slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and related disorders and could, if administered pre-symptomatically, drastically reduce the incidence of these diseases.
Loss of mitochondrial function: many lines of evidence suggest that mitochondria have a central role in neurodegenerative diseases (Lin and Beal, 2006). Mitochondria are critical regulators of cell death, a key feature of neurodegeneration. Dysfunction of mitochondria induces oxidative stress, production of free radicals, calcium overload, and mutations in mitochondrial DNA that contribute to neurodegenerative diseases. In all major examples of these diseases there is strong evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs early and acts causally in disease pathogenesis. Moreover, an impressive number of disease- specific proteins interact with mitochondria. Thus, therapies targeting basic mitochondrial processes, such as energy metabolism or free-radical generation, or specific interactions of disease-related proteins with mitochondria, hold great promise.
Decreased level of neurotrophic factors: decreased levels and activities of neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), have been described in a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease, Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease (Zuccato and Cattaneo, 2009). These studies have led to the development of experimental strategies aimed at increasing BDNF levels in the brains of animals that have been genetically altered to mimic the aforementioned human diseases, with a view to ultimately influencing the clinical treatment of these conditions. Therefore BDNF treatment is being considered as a beneficial and feasible therapeutic approach in the clinic.
Variations in the activity of neural networks: Patients with various neurodegenerative disorders show remarkable fluctuations in neurological functions, even during the same day (Palop et al., 2006). These fluctuations cannot be caused by sudden loss or gain of nerve cells. Instead, it is likely that they reflect variations in the activity of neural networks and, perhaps, chronic intoxication by abnormal proteins that the brain is only temporarily able to overcome.
How It Is Measured or Detected
The assays for measurements of necrotic or apoptotic cell death are described in the Key Event: Cell injury/Cell death
Recent neuropathological studies have shown that Fluoro-Jade, an anionic fluorescent dye, is a good marker of degenerating neurons. Fluoro-Jade and Fluoro-Jade B were found to stain all degenerating neurons, regardless of specific insult or mechanism of cell death (Schmued et al., 2005). More recently, Fluoro-Jade C was shown to be highly resistant to fading and compatible with virtually all histological processing and staining protocols (Schmued et al., 2005). In addition, Fluoro-Jade C is a good tool for detecting acutely and chronically degenerating neurons (Ehara and Ueda, 2009).
Domain of Applicability
The necrotic and apoptotic cell death pathways are quite well conserved throughout taxa (Blackstone and Green, 1999, Aravind et al., 2001). It has been widely suggested that apoptosis is also conserved in metazoans, although despite conservation of Bcl-2 proteins, APAF-1, and caspases there is no biochemical evidence of the existence of the mitochondrial pathway in either C. elegans or Drosophila apoptosis (Baum et al., 2007; Blackstone and Green, 1999).
Regulatory Significance of the Adverse Outcome
Currently the four available OECD Test Guidelines (TGs) for neurotoxicity testing are entirely based on in vivo neurotoxicity studies: (1)Delayed Neurotoxicity of Organophosphorus Substances Following Acute Exposure (TG 418); (2) Delayed Neurotoxicity of Organophosphorus Substances: 28-day Repeated Dose Study (TG 419); (3) Neurotoxicity Study in Rodents (TG 424) involves daily oral dosing of rats for acute, subchronic, or chronic assessments (28 days, 90 days, or one year or longer); (4) Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study (TG 426) evaluates in utero and early postnatal effects by daily dosing of at least 60 pregnant rats from implantation through lactation. One of the endpoints required by all four of these OECD TGs is evaluation of neurodegeneration that, so far, is performed through in vivo neuropathological and histological studies. Therefore, neurodegeneration described in this AOP as a key event, has a regulatory relevance and could be performed using in vitro assays that allow a reliable evaluation of neurodegeneration using a large range of existing assays, specific for apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy ( see also KE Cell injury/Cell death).
Aravind, L., Dixit, V. M., and Koonin, E. V. (2001). Apoptotic Molecular Machinery: Vastly Increased Complexity in Vertebrates Revealed by Genome Comparisons. Science 291, 1279-1284.
Baum, J. S., Arama, E., Steller, H., and McCall, K. (2007). The Drosophila caspases Strica and Dronc function redundantly in programmed cell death during oogenesis. Cell Death Differ 14, 1508-1517.
Blackstone, N. W., and Green, D. R. (1999). The evolution of a mechanism of cell suicide. Bioessays 21, 84-88.
Cobley JN, Fiorello ML, Bailey DM (2018) 13 reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress. Redox Biol 15: 490-503
Corvino V, Marchese E, Michetti F, Geloso MC (2013) Neuroprotective strategies in hippocampal neurodegeneration induced by the neurotoxicant trimethyltin. Neurochem Res 38: 240-253
Ehara A, Ueda S. 2009. Application of Fluoro-Jade C in acute and chronic neurodegeneration models: utilities and staining differences. Acta histochemica et cytochemica 42(6): 171-179.
Evin G, Sernee MF, Masters CL (2006) Inhibition of gamma-secretase as a therapeutic intervention for Alzheimer's disease: prospects, limitations and strategies. CNS Drugs 20: 351-72
Falluel-Morel A, Lin L, Sokolowski K, McCandlish E, Buckley B, DiCicco-Bloom E (2012) N-acetyl cysteine treatment reduces mercury-induced neurotoxicity in the developing rat hippocampus. J Neurosci Res 90: 743-750
Greicius MD, Kimmel DL (2012) Neuroimaging insights into network-based neurodegeneration. Curr Opin Neurol 25: 727-34
Kazim SF, Iqbal K (2016) Neurotrophic factor small-molecule mimetics mediated neuroregeneration and synaptic repair: emerging therapeutic modality for Alzheimer's disease. Mol Neurodegener 11: 50
Kumar V, Sami N, Kashav T, Islam A, Ahmad F, Hassan MI (2016) Protein aggregation and neurodegenerative diseases: From theory to therapy. Eur J Med Chem 124: 1105-1120
Lansbury1 PT & Lashuel HA, Review Article A century-old debate on protein aggregation and neurodegeneration enters the clinic. 2006, Nature 443, 774-779.
Lin1 MT & Beal MF, Review Article Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases, 2006, Nature 443, 787-795
Machado V, Zoller T, Attaai A, Spittau B (2016) Microglia-Mediated Neuroinflammation and Neurotrophic Factor-Induced Protection in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease-Lessons from Transgenic Mice. Int J Mol Sci 17
Narayan P, Dragunow M (2017) Alzheimer's Disease and Histone Code Alterations. Adv Exp Med Biol 978: 321-336
Palop JJ, Chin1 J & Mucke L, Review Article A network dysfunction perspective on neurodegenerative diseases. 2006, Nature 443, 768-773
Rodrigues TM, Jeronimo-Santos A, Outeiro TF, Sebastiao AM, Diogenes MJ (2014) Challenges and promises in the development of neurotrophic factor-based therapies for Parkinson's disease. Drugs Aging 31: 239-61
Schmued LC, Stowers CC, Scallet AC, Xu L. 2005. Fluoro-Jade C results in ultra high resolution and contrast labeling of degenerating neurons. Brain Res 1035(1): 24-31.
Zuccato C & Cattaneo E, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neurodegenerative diseases.2009, Nature Reviews Neurology 5, 311-3