Inhalation of materials, including fibres and particles, represents the main route of occupational exposure. The main issue is the biopersistance of these materials in lungs that could lead to chronic pulmonary pathologies such as fibrosis and cancer. Lung tumour is one of the most prevalent cancer in the world and, in general, is often detected at a late stage.
The knowledge related to the induction of lung disease following asbestos exposure led to study the toxicity of high aspect ratio materials (HARMs) in general. It is now well documented that exposure to HARMs could lead to pulmonary inflammation and ROS overproduction. Some studies suggest that lung biopersistence of HARMs is associated with frustrated phagocytosis and material length. The identified gaps regarding the induction of lung cancer following the exposure to HARMs is mainly on the interaction with cells, and no study demonstrated all the key events presented here in the same samples.