API

Event: 870

Key Event Title

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Increase, Cell Proliferation

Short name

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Increase, Cell Proliferation

Biological Context

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Level of Biological Organization
Cellular

Cell term

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Organ term

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Key Event Components

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Process Object Action
cell proliferation increased

Key Event Overview


AOPs Including This Key Event

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Stressors

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Taxonomic Applicability

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Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
rat Rattus norvegicus High NCBI
mouse Mus musculus High NCBI
human Homo sapiens High NCBI

Life Stages

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Life stage Evidence
All life stages High

Sex Applicability

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Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description

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In the context of cancer, one hallmark is the sustained and uncontrolled cell proliferation (Hanahan et al., 2011, Portt et al., 2011). When cells in the lung epithelium  obtain a growth advantage due to mutations in critical genes that regulate cell cycle progression, they may begin to proliferate excessively, resulting in hyperplasia and potentially leading to the development of a tumour (Hanahan et al., 2011).

Sustained atrophy/degeneration olfactory epithelium under the influence of a cytotoxic agent leads to adaptive tissue remodeling. Cell types unique to olfactory epithelium, e.g. olfactory neurons, sustentacular cells and Bowmans glands, are replaced by cell types comprising respiratory epithelium or squamous epithelium.


How It Is Measured or Detected

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Two common methods of measuring cell proliferation in vivo are the use of Bromodeoxyuridine (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, BrdU) labeling (Pera, 1977), and Ki67 immunostaining (Grogan, 1988). BrdU is a synthetic analogue of the nucleoside Thymidine. BrDu is incorporated into DNA synthesized during the S1 phase of cell replication and is stable for long periods. Labeling of dividing cells by BrdU is accomplished by infusion, bolus injection, or implantation of osmotic pumps containing BrdU for a period of time sufficient to generate measureable numbers of labeled cells. Tissue sections are stained immunhistochemically with antibodies for BrdU and labeled cells are counted as dividing cells. Ki67 is a cellular marker of replication not found in quiescent cells (Roche, 2015). Direct immunohistochemical staining of cells for protein Ki67 using antibodies is an alternative to the use of BrdU, with the benefit of not requiring a separate treatment (injection for pulse-labeling). Cells positive for Ki67 are counted as replicating cells. Replicating cell number is reported per unit tissue area or per cell nuclei (Bogdanffy, 1997).

Assay Name References Description OECD Approved Assay
CyQuant Cell Proliferation Assay Jones et al., 2001 DNA-binding dye is added to cell cultures, and the dye signal is measured directly to provide a cell count and thus an indication of cellular proliferation N/A
Nucleotide Analog Incorporation Assays (e.g. BrdU, EdU) Romar et al., 2016, Roche; 2013 Nucleoside analogs are added to cells in culture or injected into animals and become incorporated into the DNA at different rates, depending on the level of cellular proliferation; Antibodies conjugated to a peroxidase or fluorescent tag are used for quantification of the incorporated nucleoside analogs using techniques such as ELISA, flow cytometry, or microscopy Yes (No. 442B)
Cytoplasmic Proliferation Dye Assays Quah & Parish, 2012 Cells are incubated with a cytoplasmic dye of a certain fluorescent intensity; Cell divisions decrease the intensity in such a way that the number of divisions can be calculated using flow cytometry measurements N/A
Colourimetric Dye Assays Vega-Avila & Pugsley, 2011; American Type Culture Collection Cells are incubated with a dye that changes colour following metabolism; Colour change can be measured and extrapolated to cell number and thus provide an indication of cellular proliferation rates N/A

 


Domain of Applicability

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Cell proliferation is a central process supporting development, tissue homeostasis and carcinogenesis, each of which occur in all vertebrates. This key event has been observed nasal tissues of rats exposed to the chemical initiator vinyl acetate. In general, cell proliferation is necessary in the biological development and reproduction of most organisms. This KE is thus relevant and applicable to all multicellular cell types, tissue types, and taxa.


Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor



References

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Bogdanffy. et al. (1997). “FOUR-WEEK INHALATION CELL PROLIFERATION STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF VINYL ACETATE ON RAT NASAL EPITHELIUM”, Inhalation Toxicology, Taylor & Francis. 9: 331-350.

Grogan. et al. (1988). “Independent prognostic significance of a nuclear proliferation antigen in diffuse large cell lymphomas as determined by the monoclonal antibody Ki-67”, Blood. 71: 1157-1160.

Hanahan, D. & R. A. Weinberg, (2011),” Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation”, Cell. 144(5):646-74. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2011.02.013.

Jones, J. L. et al. (2001), Sensitive determination of cell number using the CyQUANT cell proliferation assay. Journal of Immunological Methods. 254(1-2), 85-98. Doi:10.1016/s0022-1759(01)00404-5.

Pera, Mattias and Detzer (1977). “Methods for determining the proliferation kinetics of cells by means of 5-bromodeoxyuridine”, Cell Tissue Kinet.10: 255-264. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2184.1977.tb00293.x.

Portt, L. et al. (2011), “Anti-apoptosis and cell survival: a review”, Biochim Biophys Acta. 21813(1):238-59. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2010.10.010.

Quah, J. C. B. & R. C. Parish (2012), “New and improved methods for measuring lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and in vivo using CFSE-like fluorescent dyes”, Journal of Immunological Methods. 379(1-2), 1-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jim.2012.02.012.

Roche Applied Science, (2013), “Cell Proliferation Elisa, BrdU (Colourmetric) ». Version 16

Romar, A. G., S. T. Kupper & J. S. Divito (2015), “Research Techniques Made Simple: Techniques to Assess Cell Proliferation”,  Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 136(1), e1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2015.11.020.

Vega-Avila, E. & K. M. Pugsley (2011), “An Overview of Colorimetric Assay Methods Used to Assess Survival or Proliferation of Mammalian Cells”, Proc. West. Pharmacol. Soc. 54, 10-4.