API

Event: 1614

Key Event Title

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Decrease, androgen receptors (AR) activation

Short name

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Decrease, AR activation

Biological Context

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Level of Biological Organization
Cellular

Cell term

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Organ term

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Key Event Components

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Process Object Action

Key Event Overview


AOPs Including This Key Event

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Stressors

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Taxonomic Applicability

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Life Stages

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Sex Applicability

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Key Event Description

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Androgen receptor activation is regulated by the binding of androgens. AR activity can be decreased by either a lack of steroidal ligands (testosterone, DHT) or the presence of antagonist compounds. 12


How It Is Measured or Detected

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Significance of AR signaling in fetal development can be studied through a conditional deletion of the androgen receptor using a Cre/loxP approach. The recommended animal model for reproductive study is the mouse.3

Also, epidemiological case-studies following mouse or humans expressing a complete androgen insensitivity allow to directly assess the effects of a lack of AR activation on the development.4

Enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) kits for in vitro quantitative measurement of AR activity are available. Androgen receptors activity can be measured using bioassay such as the (Anti-)Androgen Receptor CALUX reporter gene assay.5


Domain of Applicability

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References

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1 Davey R.A and Grossmann M. (2016) Androgen Receptor Structure, Function and Biology: From Bench to Bedside. Clinical Biochemist Reviews, 37(1): 3-15. PCM4810760

Gao W., Bohl C.E. and Dalton J.T. (2005) Chemistry and Structural Biology of Androgen Receptor. Chemical Reviews 105(9): 3352-3370https://doi.org/10.1021/cr020456u 

3 Kaftanovskaya E.M., Huang Z., Barbara A.M., De Gendt K., Verhoeven G., Ivan P. Gorlov, and Agoulnik A.I. (2012) Cryptorchidism in Mice with an Androgen Receptor Ablation in Gubernaculum Testis. Molecular Endocrinology, 26(4): 598-607.https://doi.org/10.1210/me.2011-1283 

4 Hutson J.M. (1985) A biphasic model for the hormonal control of testicular descent. Lancet, 24;2(8452): 419-21http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(85)92739-4 

5 van der Burg B., Winter R., Man HY., Vangenechten C., Berckmans P., Weimer M., Witters M. and van der Linden S. (2010) Optimization and prevalidation of the in vitro AR CALUX method to test androgenic and antiandrogenic activity of compounds. Reproductive Toxicology, 30(1):18-24 https://doi.org/0.1016/j.reprotox.2010.04.012