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Decrease, Cell proliferation leads to Decrease, Growth
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation leading to growth inhibition (1)||adjacent||Moderate||Moderate||You Song (send email)||Open for comment. Do not cite||Under Development|
|Mitochondrial ATP synthase antagonism leading to growth inhibition (1)||adjacent||You Song (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
|Mitochondrial complex III antagonism leading to growth inhibition (1)||adjacent||You Song (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
Life Stage Applicability
Key Event Relationship Description
This key event relationship describes reduced cell proliferation (cell growth, division or a combination of these) leading to reduced tissue, organ or individual growth.
Evidence Supporting this KER
The overall evidence supporting Relationship 2205 is considered moderate.
The biological plausibility of Relationship 2205 is considered high.
Rationale: The biological structural and functional relationship between cell proliferation and growth is well established. It is commonly accepted that the size of an organism, organ or tissue is dependent on the total number and volume of the cells it contains, and the amount of extracellular matrix and fluids (Conlon 1999). Impairment to cell proliferation can logically affect tissue and organismal growth.
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
- In zebrafish embryos exposed to 2,4-DNP, significant growth inhibition (AO) was identified after 21h, whereas a non-significant reduction in cell proliferation was observed (Bestman 2015).
Known modulating factors
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
Relationship 2205 is considered applicable to all eukaryotes (both unicellular and multicellular), as growth (or population growth of alga) is well known to be achieved through cell proliferation in animals, plants and some microorganisms.
Relationship 2205 is considered applicable to both all sexes, as cell proliferation leading to growth is a fundamental process and not sex-specific.
Relationship 2205 is considered applicable to all life stages, as cell proliferation leading to growth is essential for maintaining basic biological processes throughout an organism’s life.
Bestman JE, Stackley KD, Rahn JJ, Williamson TJ, Chan SS. 2015. The cellular and molecular progression of mitochondrial dysfunction induced by 2,4-dinitrophenol in developing zebrafish embryos. Differentiation 89:51-69. DOI: 10.1016/j.diff.2015.01.001.
Binder BJ, Landman KA, Simpson MJ, Mariani M, Newgreen DF. 2008. Modeling proliferative tissue growth: a general approach and an avian case study. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 78:031912. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.78.031912.
Conlon I, Raff M. 1999. Size control in animal development. Cell 96:235-244. DOI: 10.1016/s0092-8674(00)80563-2.
Jarrett AM, Lima EABF, Hormuth DA, McKenna MT, Feng X, Ekrut DA, Resende ACM, Brock A, Yankeelov TE. 2018. Mathematical models of tumor cell proliferation: A review of the literature. Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy 18:1271-1286. DOI: 10.1080/14737140.2018.1527689.
Mosca G, Adibi, M., Strauss, S., Runions, A., Sapala, A., Smith, R.S. 2018. Modeling Plant Tissue Growth and Cell Division. In Morris R., ed, Mathematical Modelling in Plant Biology. Springer, Cham.