To the extent possible under law, AOP-Wiki has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to KER:394

Relationship: 394


The title of the KER should clearly define the two KEs being considered and the sequential relationship between them (i.e., which is upstream and which is downstream). Consequently all KER titles take the form “upstream KE leads to downstream KE”.  More help

irregularities, ovarian cycle leads to impaired, Fertility

Upstream event
Upstream event in the Key Event Relationship. On the KER page, clicking on the Event name under Upstream Relationship will bring the user to that individual KE page. More help
Downstream event
Downstream event in the Key Event Relationship. On the KER page, clicking on the Event name under Upstream Relationship will bring the user to that individual KE page. More help

Key Event Relationship Overview

The utility of AOPs for regulatory application is defined, to a large extent, by the confidence and precision with which they facilitate extrapolation of data measured at low levels of biological organisation to predicted outcomes at higher levels of organisation and the extent to which they can link biological effect measurements to their specific causes. Within the AOP framework, the predictive relationships that facilitate extrapolation are represented by the KERs. Consequently, the overall WoE for an AOP is a reflection in part, of the level of confidence in the underlying series of KERs it encompasses. Therefore, describing the KERs in an AOP involves assembling and organising the types of information and evidence that defines the scientific basis for inferring the probable change in, or state of, a downstream KE from the known or measured state of an upstream KE. More help

AOPs Referencing Relationship

This table is automatically generated upon addition of a KER to an AOP. All of the AOPs that are linked to this KER will automatically be listed in this subsection. Clicking on the name of the AOP in the table will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Adjacency Weight of Evidence Quantitative Understanding Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
Aromatase (Cyp19a1) reduction leading to impaired fertility in adult female non-adjacent Moderate Elise Grignard (send email) Open for citation & comment EAGMST Under Review
Inhibition of ALDH1A (RALDH) causing reduced all-trans retinoic acid levels leading to impaired fertility, females adjacent High Low Terje Svingen (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development

Taxonomic Applicability

Select one or more structured terms that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KER. In general, this will be dictated by the more restrictive of the two KEs being linked together by the KER. Authors can indicate the relevant taxa for this KER in this subsection. The process is similar to what is described for KEs (see pages 30-31 and 37-38 of User Handbook) More help

Sex Applicability

Authors can indicate the relevant sex for this KER in this subsection. The process is similar to what is described for KEs (see pages 31-32 of the User Handbook). More help

Life Stage Applicability

Authors can indicate the relevant life stage for this KER in this subsection. The process is similar to what is described for KEs (see pages 31-32 of User Handbook). More help

Key Event Relationship Description

Provide a brief, descriptive summation of the KER. While the title itself is fairly descriptive, this section can provide details that aren’t inherent in the description of the KEs themselves (see page 39 of the User Handbook). This description section can be viewed as providing the increased specificity in the nature of upstream perturbation (KEupstream) that leads to a particular downstream perturbation (KEdownstream), while allowing the KE descriptions to remain generalised so they can be linked to different AOPs. The description is also intended to provide a concise overview for readers who may want a brief summation, without needing to read through the detailed support for the relationship (covered below). Careful attention should be taken to avoid reference to other KEs that are not part of this KER, other KERs or other AOPs. This will ensure that the KER is modular and can be used by other AOPs. More help

The ovarian cycle irregularities impact on reproductive capacity of the females that may result in impaired fertility:

1. Irregular cycles may reflect impaired ovulation. Extended vaginal estrus usually indicates that the female cannot spontaneously achieve the ovulatory surge of LH (Huang and Meites, 1975). The persistence of regular vaginal cycles after treatment does not necessarily indicate that ovulation occurred, because luteal tissue may form in follicles that have not ruptured. However, that effect should be reflected in reduced fertility. Conversely, subtle alterations of cyclicity can occur at doses below those that alter fertility (Gray et al., 1989).

2. Persistent or constant vaginal cornification (or vaginal estrus) may result from one or several effects. Typically, in the adult, if the vaginal epithelium becomes cornified and remains so in response to toxicant exposure, it is the result of the agent’s estrogenic properties (i.e., DES or methoxychlor), or the ability of the agent to block ovulation. In the latter case, the follicle persists and endogenous estrogen levels bring about the persistent vaginal cornification. Histologically, the ovaries in persistent estrus will be atrophied following exposure to estrogenic substances. In contrast, the ovaries of females in which ovulation has been blocked because of altered gonadotropin secretion will contain several large follicles and no corpora lutea. Females in constant estrus may be sexually receptive regardless of the mechanism responsible for this altered ovarian condition. However, if ovulation has been blocked by the treatment, an LH surge may be induced by mating (Brown-Grant et al., 1973; Smith, E.R. and Davidson, 1974) and a pregnancy or pseudopregnancy may ensue. The fertility of such matings is reduced (Cooper et al., 1994).

3. Significant delays in ovulation can result in increased embryonic abnormalities and pregnancy loss (Fugo and Butcher, 1966; Cooper et al., 1994).

4. Persistent diestrus indicates temporary or permanent cessation of follicular development and ovulation, and thus at least temporary infertility.

5. Prolonged vaginal diestrus, or anestrus, may be indicative of agents (e.g., polyaromatic hydrocarbons) that interfere with follicular development or deplete the pool of primordial follicles (Mattison and Nightingale, 1980) or agents such as atrazine that interrupt gonadotropin support of the ovary (Cooper et al., 1996). Pseudopregnancy is another altered endocrine state reflected by persistent diestrus. The ovaries of anestrous females are atrophic, with few primary follicles and an unstimulated uterus (Huang and Meites, 1975). Serum estradiol and progesterone are abnormally low.

6. Lengthening of the cycle may be a result of increased duration of either estrus or diestrus.

Evidence Supporting this KER

Assembly and description of the scientific evidence supporting KERs in an AOP is an important step in the AOP development process that sets the stage for overall assessment of the AOP (see pages 49-56 of the User Handbook). To do this, biological plausibility, empirical support, and the current quantitative understanding of the KER are evaluated with regard to the predictive relationships/associations between defined pairs of KEs as a basis for considering WoE (page 55 of User Handbook). In addition, uncertainties and inconsistencies are considered. More help
Biological Plausibility
Define, in free text, the biological rationale for a connection between KEupstream and KEdownstream. What are the structural or functional relationships between the KEs? For example, there is a functional relationship between an enzyme’s activity and the product of a reaction it catalyses. Supporting references should be included. However, it is recognised that there may be cases where the biological relationship between two KEs is very well established, to the extent that it is widely accepted and consistently supported by so much literature that it is unnecessary and impractical to cite the relevant primary literature. Citation of review articles or other secondary sources, like text books, may be reasonable in such cases. The primary intent is to provide scientifically credible support for the structural and/or functional relationship between the pair of KEs if one is known. The description of biological plausibility can also incorporate additional mechanistic details that help inform the relationship between KEs, this is useful when it is not practical/pragmatic to represent these details as separate KEs due to the difficulty or relative infrequency with which it is likely to be measured (see page 40 of the User Handbook for further information).   More help

In females, normal reproductive function involves the appropriate interaction of central nervous system, anterior pituitary, oviducts, uterus, cervix and ovaries. During the reproductive years the ovary is the central organ in this axis. The functional unit within the ovary is the follicle which is composed of theca; granulosa cells and the oocyte. The somatic compartment synthesizes and secrets hormones (steroids and growth factors) necessary for the orchestration of the inter-relationship between the other parts of the reproductive tract and the central nervous system. Oestrus cycle is under strict hormonal control, therefore perturbations of hormonal balance lead to perturbations of normal cyclicity (change in number of cycles or duration of each phase) and/or ovulation problems leading to impaired female reproductive function. However, there are other mechanisms that might result in impaired fertility (e.g cellular maturation in ovary).

Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
In addition to outlining the evidence supporting a particular linkage, it is also important to identify inconsistencies or uncertainties in the relationship. Additionally, while there are expected patterns of concordance that support a causal linkage between the KEs in the pair, it is also helpful to identify experimental details that may explain apparent deviations from the expected patterns of concordance. Identification of uncertainties and inconsistencies contribute to evaluation of the overall WoE supporting the AOPs that contain a given KER and to the identification of research gaps that warrant investigation (seep pages 41-42 of the User Handbook).Given that AOPs are intended to support regulatory applications, AOP developers should focus on those inconsistencies or gaps that would have a direct bearing or impact on the confidence in the KER and its use as a basis for inference or extrapolation in a regulatory setting. Uncertainties that may be of academic interest but would have little impact on regulatory application don’t need to be described. In general, this section details evidence that may raise questions regarding the overall validity and predictive utility of the KER (including consideration of both biological plausibility and empirical support). It also contributes along with several other elements to the overall evaluation of the WoE for the KER (see Section 4 of the User Handbook).  More help

Chemicals may be found to interfere with reproductive function in the female. This interference is commonly expressed as a change in normal morphology of the reproductive tract or a disturbance in the duration of particular phases of the estrous cycle. However, menstrual cyclicity is affected by many parameters such as age, nutritional status, stress, exercise level, certain drugs, and the use of contraceptive measures that alter endocrine feedback. In nonpregnant females, repetitive occurrence of the four stages of the estrous cycle at regular, normal intervals suggests that neuroendocrine control of the cycle and ovarian responses to that control are normal. Even normal, control animals can show irregular cycles. However, a significant alteration compared with controls in the interval between occurrence of estrus for a treatment group is cause for concern. Generally, the cycle will be lengthened or the animals will become acyclic. Therefore changes in cyclicity should be interpreted with caution and not judged adverse without a comprehensive consideration of additional relevant endpoints in a weight-of-evidence approach.


Two generation studies by Tyl et al with Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) did not observe effects in F0 females on any parameters of estrous cycling, mating, or gestation. However, F1 females carrying F2 litters at and reduced number of total and live pups/litter at birth, with no effects on pre- or postnatal survival (Tyl et al., 2004).

Response-response Relationship
This subsection should be used to define sources of data that define the response-response relationships between the KEs. In particular, information regarding the general form of the relationship (e.g., linear, exponential, sigmoidal, threshold, etc.) should be captured if possible. If there are specific mathematical functions or computational models relevant to the KER in question that have been defined, those should also be cited and/or described where possible, along with information concerning the approximate range of certainty with which the state of the KEdownstream can be predicted based on the measured state of the KEupstream (i.e., can it be predicted within a factor of two, or within three orders of magnitude?). For example, a regression equation may reasonably describe the response-response relationship between the two KERs, but that relationship may have only been validated/tested in a single species under steady state exposure conditions. Those types of details would be useful to capture.  More help
This sub-section should be used to provide information regarding the approximate time-scale of the changes in KEdownstream relative to changes in KEupstream (i.e., do effects on KEdownstream lag those on KEupstream by seconds, minutes, hours, or days?). This can be useful information both in terms of modelling the KER, as well as for analyzing the critical or dominant paths through an AOP network (e.g., identification of an AO that could kill an organism in a matter of hours will generally be of higher priority than other potential AOs that take weeks or months to develop). Identification of time-scale can also aid the assessment of temporal concordance. For example, for a KER that operates on a time-scale of days, measurement of both KEs after just hours of exposure in a short-term experiment could lead to incorrect conclusions regarding dose-response or temporal concordance if the time-scale of the upstream to downstream transition was not considered. More help
Known modulating factors
This sub-section presents information regarding modulating factors/variables known to alter the shape of the response-response function that describes the quantitative relationship between the two KEs (for example, an iodine deficient diet causes a significant increase in the slope of the relationship; a particular genotype doubles the sensitivity of KEdownstream to changes in KEupstream). Information on these known modulating factors should be listed in this subsection, along with relevant information regarding the manner in which the modulating factor can be expected to alter the relationship (if known). Note, this section should focus on those modulating factors for which solid evidence supported by relevant data and literature is available. It should NOT list all possible/plausible modulating factors. In this regard, it is useful to bear in mind that many risk assessments conducted through conventional apical guideline testing-based approaches generally consider few if any modulating factors. More help
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
This subsection should define whether there are known positive or negative feedback mechanisms involved and what is understood about their time-course and homeostatic limits? In some cases where feedback processes are measurable and causally linked to the outcome, they should be represented as KEs. However, in most cases these features are expected to predominantly influence the shape of the response-response, time-course, behaviours between selected KEs. For example, if a feedback loop acts as compensatory mechanism that aims to restore homeostasis following initial perturbation of a KE, the feedback loop will directly shape the response-response relationship between the KERs. Given interest in formally identifying these positive or negative feedback, it is recommended that a graphical annotation (page 44) indicating a positive or negative feedback loop is involved in a particular upstream to downstream KE transition (KER) be added to the graphical representation, and that details be provided in this subsection of the KER description (see pages 44-45 of the User Handbook).  More help

Domain of Applicability

As for the KEs, there is also a free-text section of the KER description that the developer can use to explain his/her rationale for the structured terms selected with regard to taxonomic, life stage, or sex applicability, or provide a more generalizable or nuanced description of the applicability domain than may be feasible using standardized terms. More help

In many instances, human female reproductive toxicity of an agent is suspected based on studies performed in experimental animals. The neuroendocrinology, steroid biochemistry, and other physiologic events in the females of most small experimental species often used (mouse, rat, hamster) are similar in their susceptibility to disruption by toxicants (Massaro, 1997).

Although the assessment of the human ovarian cycle may have a variety of biomarkers distinct from those in rats, many of the underlying endocrine mechanisms associated with successful follicular development, ovulation, pregnancy, and parturition are homologous between the two (for review see (Bretveld et al., 2006). For this reason, a toxicant-induced perturbation of ovarian cycles in female rats suggest that a compound may function as a reproductive toxicant in human females.


  • environmental air pollution (Mohallem et al., 2005)
  • phthalates (DEHP)
  • abortion rate of 100% in F0 dams in the 500-mg/kg/day was observed, in F1 females found that the total number of F2 embryos (exposed to DEHP only as germ cells) was not impaired. However, in the 0.05- and 5-mg DEHP groups, 28% and 29%, respectively, of the blastocysts were degenerated, compared with 8% of controls (Schmidt et al., 2012).
  • Lamb et al. studied fertility effects of DEHP in mice (both sexes) and found that DEHP caused dose-dependent decreases in fertility. DBP exposure resulted in a reduction in the numbers of litters per pair and of live pups per litter and in the proportion of pups born alive at the 1.0% amount, but not at lower dose levels. A crossover mating trial demonstrated that female mice, but not males, were affected by DBP, as shown by significant decreases in the percentage of fertile pairs, the number of live pups per litter, the proportion of pups born alive, and live pup weight. DHP in the diet resulted in dose-related adverse effects on the numbers of litters per pair and of live pups per litter and proportion of pups born alive at 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2% DHP in the diet. A crossover mating study demonstrated that both sexes were affected. DEHP (at 0.1 and 0.3%) caused dose-dependent decreases in fertility and in the number and the proportion of pups born alive. A crossover mating trial showed that both sexes were affected by exposure to DEHP. These data demonstrate the ability of the continuous breeding protocol to discriminate the qualitative and quantitative reproductive effects of the more and less active congeners as well as the large differences in reproductive toxicity attributable to subtle changes in the alkyl substitution of phthalate esters (Lamb et al., 1987).

Rat phthalates (DEHP)

  • female rats exposed to a high dose of DEHP (3,000 mg/kg/day) had irregular estrous cycles and a slight decline in pregnancy rate (Takai et al., 2009). At 1,000 mg/kg bw/day over a period of 4 weeks did not disturb female fertility or early embryo development.
  • There was significant evidence that 5, 15, 50, and 400 mg /kg/day females differed from the control females in the relative amount of time spent in oestrous stages, however no changes were revealed in the number of females with regular cycles, cycle length, number of cycles, and in number of cycling females across the dose groups as compared to the control females The litter size (number of live pups) produced by the P0 generation was significantly reduced in the 400 mg/kg/day dose group (Blystone et al., 2010).


Studies showing a correlation between decreased fertility and;

  • professional activity (Olsen, 1994)
  • phthalates (DEHP) In occupationally exposed women to high concentration of phthalates exhibit hypoestrogenic anovulary cycles and was associated with decreased pregnancy rate and higher miscarriage rates (Aldyreva,M.V.,Klimove,T.S.,Iziumova,A.S.,Timofeevskaia,L.A., 1975).
  • smoking (Hull, North, Taylor, Farrow, & Ford, 2000)
  • the use of certain drugs or radiation exposure (Dobson & Felton, 1983)

For the taxonomic applicability see also the Table 1.


List of the literature that was cited for this KER description using the appropriate format. Ideally, the list of references should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide (OECD, 2015). More help

Aldyreva,M.V.,Klimove,T.S.,Iziumova,A.S.,Timofeevskaia,L.A. (1975). The effect of phthalate plasticizers on the generative function. Gig.Tr.Prof.Zabol., (19), 25–29.

Bhattacharya, P., & Keating, A. F. (2012). Impact of environmental exposures on ovarian function and role of xenobiotic metabolism during ovotoxicity. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 261(3), 227–35. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2012.04.009

Blasberg, M. E., Langan, C. J., & Clark, A. S. (1997). The effects of 17 alpha-methyltestosterone, methandrostenolone, and nandrolone decanoate on the rat estrous cycle. Physiology & Behavior, 61(2), 265–72.

Blystone, C. R., Kissling, G. E., Bishop, J. B., Chapin, R. E., Wolfe, G. W., & Foster, P. M. D. (2010). Determination of the di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate NOAEL for reproductive development in the rat: importance of the retention of extra animals to adulthood. Toxicological Sciences : An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology, 116(2), 640–6. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfq147

Bretveld, R. W., Thomas, C. M. G., Scheepers, P. T. J., Zielhuis, G. A., & Roeleveld, N. (2006). Pesticide exposure: the hormonal function of the female reproductive system disrupted? Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology : RB&E, 4(1), 30. doi:10.1186/1477-7827-4-30

Chao, H.-R., Wang, S.-L., Lin, L.-Y., Lee, W.-J., & Päpke, O. (2007). Placental transfer of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in Taiwanese mothers in relation to menstrual cycle characteristics. Food and Chemical Toxicology : An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association, 45(2), 259–65. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2006.07.032

Clark, A. S., Blasberg, M. E., & Brandling-Bennett, E. M. (1998). Stanozolol, oxymetholone, and testosterone cypionate effects on the rat estrous cycle. Physiology & Behavior, 63(2), 287–95.

Cooper, R. L., and Goldman, J. M. (1999). Vaginal cytology. In An Evaluation and Interpretation of Reproductive Endpoints for Human Health Risk Assessment. Washington. Davis, B. J., Maronpot, R. R., & Heindel, J. J. (1994). Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate suppresses estradiol and ovulation in cycling rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 128(2), 216–23. doi:10.1006/taap.1994.1200

Dobson, R. L., & Felton, J. S. (1983). Female germ cell loss from radiation and chemical exposures. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 4(1-2), 175–90.

Gilmore, D. P., & McDonald, P. G. (1969). Induction of prolonged diestrus in the rat by a low level of estrogen. Endocrinology, 85(5), 946–8. doi:10.1210/endo-85-5-946 Herreros, M. A., Encinas, T., Torres-Rovira, L., Garcia-Fernandez, R. A., Flores, J. M., Ros, J. M., & Gonzalez-Bulnes, A. (2013). Exposure to the endocrine disruptor di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate affects female reproductive features by altering pulsatile LH secretion. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 36(3), 1141–9. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2013.09.020

Herreros, M. A., Gonzalez-Bulnes, A., Iñigo-Nuñez, S., Contreras-Solis, I., Ros, J. M., & Encinas, T. (2013). Toxicokinetics of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its effects on luteal function in sheep. Reproductive Biology, 13(1), 66–74. doi:10.1016/j.repbio.2013.01.177

Hull, M. G., North, K., Taylor, H., Farrow, A., & Ford, W. C. (2000). Delayed conception and active and passive smoking. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood Study Team. Fertility and Sterility, 74(4), 725–33.

Lamb, J. C., Chapin, R. E., Teague, J., Lawton, A. D., & Reel, J. R. (1987). Reproductive effects of four phthalic acid esters in the mouse. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 88(2), 255–69.

Laws, S. C. (2000). Estrogenic Activity of Octylphenol, Nonylphenol, Bisphenol A and Methoxychlor in Rats. Toxicological Sciences, 54(1), 154–167. doi:10.1093/toxsci/54.1.154

Li, X., Johnson, D. C., & Rozman, K. K. (1995). Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on estrous cyclicity and ovulation in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicology Letters, 78(3), 219–22.

Massaro, E. J. (Ed.). (1997). Handbook of Human Toxicology, Volume 236. Taylor & Francis.

Meerts, I. A. T. M., Hoving, S., van den Berg, J. H. J., Weijers, B. M., Swarts, H. J., van der Beek, E. M., … Brouwer, A. (2004). Effects of in utero exposure to 4-hydroxy-2,3,3’,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-CB107) on developmental landmarks, steroid hormone levels, and female estrous cyclicity in rats. Toxicological Sciences : An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology, 82(1), 259–67. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfh251

Mohallem, S. V., de Araújo Lobo, D. J., Pesquero, C. R., Assunção, J. V., de Andre, P. A., Saldiva, P. H. N., & Dolhnikoff, M. (2005). Decreased fertility in mice exposed to environmental air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo. Environmental Research, 98(2), 196–202. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2004.08.007

NTP. (2005). Multigenerational Reproductive Assessment by Continuous Breeding when Diethylhexylphthalate (CAS 117-81-7).

OECD. (2008). No 43: Guidance document on mammalian reproductive toxicity testing and assessment.

Ogata, R., Omura, M., Shimasaki, Y., Kubo, K., Oshima, Y., Aou, S., & Inoue, N. (2001). Two-generation reproductive toxicity study of tributyltin chloride in female rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A, 63(2), 127–44. doi:10.1080/15287390151126469

Olsen, J. (1994). Is human fecundity declining--and does occupational exposures play a role in such a decline if it exists? Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 20 Spec No, 72–7.

Schilling, K., Deckardt. K., Gembardt, Chr., and Hildebrand, B. (1999). Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate – two-generation reproduction toxicity range-finding study in Wistar rats. Continuos dietary administration.

Schmidt, J.-S., Schaedlich, K., Fiandanese, N., Pocar, P., & Fischer, B. (2012). Effects of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on female fertility and adipogenesis in C3H/N mice. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(8), 1123–9. doi:10.1289/ehp.1104016

Takai, R., Hayashi, S., Kiyokawa, J., Iwata, Y., Matsuo, S., Suzuki, M., … Deki, T. (2009). Collaborative work on evaluation of ovarian toxicity. 10) Two- or four-week repeated dose studies and fertility study of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in female rats. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 34 Suppl 1(I), SP111–9.

Tyl, R. W., Myers, C. B., Marr, M. C., Fail, P. a, Seely, J. C., Brine, D. R., … Butala, J. H. (2004). Reproductive toxicity evaluation of dietary butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) in rats. Reproductive Toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.), 18(2), 241–64. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2003.10.006

Wolf, C., Lambright, C., Mann, P., Price, M., Cooper, R. L., Ostby, J., & Gray, L. E. (1999). Administration of potentially antiandrogenic pesticides (procymidone, linuron, iprodione, chlozolinate, p,p’-DDE, and ketoconazole) and toxic substances (dibutyl- and diethylhexyl phthalate, PCB 169, and ethane dimethane sulphonate) during sexual differen. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 15(1-2), 94–118. doi:10.1177/074823379901500109