Upstream eventT4 in serum, Decreased
Cognitive Function, Decreased
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding|
|Inhibition of Thyroperoxidase and Subsequent Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Mammals||non-adjacent||High||Moderate|
|XX Inhibition of Sodium Iodide Symporter and Subsequent Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Mammals||non-adjacent||High||Moderate|
|Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) Inhibition and Subsequent Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Mammals||non-adjacent||High||Low|
Life Stage Applicability
|During brain development||High|
Key Event Relationship Description
Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for normal development of the structure and function of the brain, including hippocampal development and cognitive function (Anderson et al., 2003; Bernal, 2007; Willoughby et al., 2014). Brain concentrations of T4 are dependent on transfer of T4 from serum, through the vascular endothelia, into astrocytes. In astrocytes, T4 is converted to T3 by deiodinase and subsequently transferred to neurons cellular membrane transporters. In the brain T3 controls transcription and translation of genes responsible for normal hippocampal structural and functional development. Normal hippocampal structure and physiology are critical for the development of cognitive function. Thus, there is an indisputable indirect link between serum T4 and cognitive function.
Evidence Supporting this KER
The weight of evidence for this indirect relationship is strong. Alterations in serum TH concentrations are very well correlated with adverse impacts on cognitive behaviors such as learning and memory. This includes a large amount of literature, from more than four decades of research, that links hypothyroidism and/or hypothyroxinemia with alterations in spatial cognitive function, a hippocampal dependent behavior. A number of reviews are cited below that are primarily from humans and rodents, but this indirect relationship has also been shown for a number of other species.
In humans, severe serum TH reductions that accompany congenital hypothyroidism dramatically impair brain function and lead to severe mental retardation. Lower global IQ scores, language delays and weak verbal skills, motor weakness, attentional deficits and learning impairments accompany low serum TH in children (Derksen-Lubsen and Verkerk 1996). Standard tests of IQ function in children born to mothers with even marginal hypothyoidism during pregnancy or in children with a defective thyroid gland who are then treated remain approximately 6 points below expected values. Selective deficits on visual spatial, motor, language, memory and attention tests are observed, the exact phenotype largely dependent on the developmental window over which the insufficiency occurred and the severity of the hormone deficit (Mirabella et al. 2000; Rovet 2002; Zoeller and Rovet 2004; Willoughby et al 2014). Indeed, this link is recognized as being so clinically important that T4 and TSH are monitored in all newborns in the US.
In rodent models, reductions in serum TH induced by TPO inhibitors such as MMI and PTU, when induced during development, lead to a variety of neurobehavioral impairments. These impairments can occur in the sensory, motor, and cognitive domains. The specific phenotype is dependent on both the window of exposure, the duration of exposure, and the severity of the hormone reduction (Zoeller and Rovet, 2004). This includes more than four decades of work linking serum TH changes to alterations in hippocampal-dependent spatial behaviors (Akaike et al., 2004; Axelstand etal., 2008; Brosvic et al; Kawada et al, 1988; Friedhoff et al, 2000; Gilbert and Sui, 2006; Gilbert et al., 2016; Gilbert, 2011).
The biological plausibility of this KER is rated as strong. The relationship is consistent with the known biology of how the relationship between serum TH concentrations, brain TH concentrations, and TH control of brain development.
Empirical support for this KER is rated as strong. Empirical data from studies that measure serum TH concentrations and then assess alterations in cognitive function, including hippocampal dependent behaviors, is vast. The qualitative relationship between reduced serum hormone levels and adverse cognitive outcomes is well accepted in endocrinology, as well as developmental neuroendocrinology. Indeed, the relationship between serum T4 and T3 levels and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes (e.g., IQ loss in children) is beyond reproach.
Temporal Evidence: The temporal nature of this KER is developmental (Seed et al., 2005). It is a well-recognized fact that there are critical developmental windows for disruption of the serum THs that result in cognitive function. In humans, hormone insufficiency that occurs in mid-pregnancy due to maternal drops in serum hormone, and that which occurs in late pregnancy due to disruptions in the fetal thyroid gland lead to different patterns of cognitive impairment (Zoeller and Rovet, 2004). In animal models, deficits in hippocampal-dependent cognitive tasks result from developmental, but not adult hormone deprivation (Gilbert and Sui, 2006; Gilbert et al., 2016; Axelstad et al, 2009; Gilbert, 2011; Opazo et al., 2008). Replacement studies have demonstrated that varying adverse neurobehavioral outcomes, including cognitive function, can be reduced or eliminated if T4 (and/or T3) treatment is given during the critical windows (e.g., Kawada et al., 1988; Goldey and Crofton, 1998). Reid et al., 2007).
Dose-Response Evidence: An increasing amount of literature is now available that provides clear evidence of the ‘dose-response’ nature of this KER. Most research over that last 40 years has employed high doses of chemicals, or chemicals plus thyroidectomies, that results in severe depletion of circulating thyroid hormones. More recently, researchers produced graded degrees of TH insufficiency in dams and pups by administering varying doses of chemicals and have correlated them to the dose-dependency of the observed effects. This work has provided increased confidence in the relationship between serum TH decrements and a variety of neurodevelopmental impairments, and also to the specificity of the observed effects on brain development that is directly mediated by TH insufficiency (Goldey et al., 1995; Crofton, 2004; Gilbert and Sui, 2006; Gilbert, 2011; Bastian et al., 2014; Royland et al., 2008; Sharlin et al., 2008).
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
There are no inconsistencies in this KER, but there are some remaining uncertainties. It is widely accepted that changes in serum THs during development will result in alterations in behavior controlled by the hippocampus. This has been repeatedly demonstrated in animal models and in humans. The major remaining uncertainty is the precise relationship between the degree, timing and duration of serum TH changes that leads to these behavioral deficits.
Quantitative Understanding of the Linkage
With the exception of a quantitative relationship between serum T4 and hearing loss in rodents (Crofton, 2004), there are no other reports of development of quantitative predictive models linking serum TH and adverse neurological outcomes. Insufficient data exist to develop a quantitative predictive model of adverse cognitive outcomes from serum TH concentrations. However, evidence from human studies suggests that decreases as low as 25% in serum T4 in pregnant women will yield small decrements in IQ in children (e.g., Haddow et al., 1995). Based on this, regulatory authorities have used 10 and/or 20% changes in serum T4 as a point of departure for hazard assessments in rodent studies (EPA, 2011).
Known modulating factors
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
There is a plethora of data supporting this KER in rats, mice, and humans.
Akaike M, Kato N, Ohno H, Kobayashi T (1991) Hyperactivity and spatial maze learning impairment of adult rats with temporary neonatal hypothyroidism. Neurotoxicol Teratol 13:317-322.
Anderson GW, Schoonover CM, Jones SA (2003) Control of thyroid hormone action in the developing rat brain. Thyroid 13:1039-56.
Axelstad M, Hansen PR, Boberg J, Bonnichsen M, Nellemann C, Lund SP, Hougaard KS, Hass U. Developmental neurotoxicity of propylthiouracil (PTU) in rats: relationship between transient hypothyroxinemia during development and long-lasting behavioural and functional changes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008 Oct 1;232(1):1-13
Bastian TW, Prohaska JR, Georgieff MK, Anderson GW (2014) Fetal and neonatal iron deficiency exacerbates mild thyroid hormone insufficiency effects on male thyroid hormone levels and brain thyroid hormone-responsive gene expression. Endocrinology 155:1157-1167.
Bernal J. 2007. Thyroid hormone receptors in brain development and function. Nature clinical practice Endocrinology & metabolism. 3:249-259.
Brosvic GM, Taylor JN, Dihoff RE. (2002). Influences of early thyroid hormone manipulations: delays in pup motor and exploratory behavior are evident in adult operant performance. Physiol Behav. Apr 15;75(5):697-715.
Crofton KM. Developmental disruption of thyroid hormone: correlations with hearing dysfunction in rats. Risk Anal. 2004 Dec;24(6):1665-71.
Derksen-Lubsen, G. and P. H. Verkerk (1996). "Neuropsychologic development in early treated congenital hypothyroidism: analysis of literature data." Pediatr Res 39(3): 561-6.
EPA (2011) FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel Consultation, Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment Strategy:Use of New Computational and Molecular Tools, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, Washington DC May 24-26, 2011 Link to Document
Friedhoff AJ, Miller JC, Armour M, Schweitzer JW, Mohan S. Role of maternal biochemistry in fetal brain development: effect of maternal thyroidectomy on behaviour and biogenic amine metabolism in rat progeny. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2000 Jun;3(2):89-97.
Gilbert ME. Impact of low-level thyroid hormone disruption induced by propylthiouracil on brain development and function. Toxicol Sci. 2011;124(2):432-445.
Gilbert ME, Sui L. Dose-dependent reductions in spatial learning and synaptic function in the dentate gyrus of adult rats following developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency. Brain Res. 2006 Jan 19;1069(1):10-2
Gilbert ME, Sanchez-Huerta K, Wood C (2016) Mild Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency During Development Compromises Activity-Dependent Neuroplasticity in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats. Endocrinology 157:774-787.
Goldey ES, Kehn LS, Rehnberg GL, Crofton KM. Effects of developmental hypothyroidism on auditory and motor function in the rat.Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1995 Nov;135(1):67-76.
Goldey ES, Crofton KM. (1998) Thyroxine replacement attenuates hypothyroxinemia, hearing loss, and motor deficits following developmental exposure to Aroclor 1254 in rats. Toxicol Sci. 45:94-105.
Haddow, J. E., G. E. Palomaki, et al. (1999). "Maternal thyroid deficiency during pregnancy and subsequent neuropsychological development of the child." N Engl J Med 341(8): 549-55.
Kawada J, Mino H, Nishida M, Yoshimura Y. (1988) An appropriate model for congenital hypothyroidism in the rat induced by neonatal treatment with propylthiouracil and surgical thyroidectomy: studies on learning ability and biochemical parameters. Neuroendocrinology. 47:424-30.
Mirabella, G., D. Feig, et al. (2000). "The effect of abnormal intrauterine thyroid hormone economies on infant cognitive abilities." J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 13(2): 191-4.
Opazo MC, Gianini A, Pancetti F, Azkcona G, Alarcón L, Lizana R, Noches V, Gonzalez PA, Marassi MP, Mora S, Rosenthal D, Eugenin E, Naranjo D, Bueno SM, Kalergis AM, Riedel CA (2008), Maternal hypothyroxinemia impairs spatial learning and synaptic nature and function in the offspring. Endocrinology 149:5097-5106.
Reid RE, Kim EM, Page D, O'Mara SM, O'Hare E. Thyroxine replacement in an animal model of congenital hypothyroidism.Physiol Behav. 2007 Jun 8;91(2-3):299-303. Epub 2007 Mar 15.
Rovet, J. F. (2002). Congenital hypothyroidism: an analysis of persisting deficits and associated factors." Child Neuropsychol 8(3): 150-62.
Royland JE, Parker JS, Gilbert ME. 2008a. A genomic analysis of subclinical hypothyroidism in hippocampus and neocortex of the developing rat brain. Journal of neuroendocrinology. Dec;20:1319-1338.
Sharlin DS, Tighe D, Gilbert ME, Zoeller RT (2008) The balance between oligodendrocyte and astrocyte production in major white matter tracts is linearly related to serum total thyroxine. Endocrinology 149:2527-2536.
Willoughby KA, McAndrews MP, Rovet J. Effects of maternal hypothyroidism on offspring hippocampus and memory. Thyroid, 2014;24:576-584.
Zoeller RT, Rovet J. Timing of thyroid hormone action in the developing brain: clinical observations and experimental findings. J Neuroendocrinol. 2004 Oct;16(10):809-18