Stressor: 624


Chemical name selected from established chemical ontologies or, depending on the information available, this could also refer to chemical categories (i.e., groups of chemicals with defined structural features known to trigger the MIE).  It can also include non-chemical prototypical stressors such as genetic or environmental factors. More help


Stressor Overview

A structured data field that can be used to annotate an AOP with standardized terms identifying prototypical stressors known to trigger the MIE(s)/AOP. More help

AOPs Including This Stressor

This table is automatically generated and lists the AOPs associated with this prototypical stressor. More help

Chemical Table

A list of chemicals associated with a prototypical stressor. More help


List of the literature that was cited for this prototypical stressor. More help

Port, J.R., Yinda, C.K., Avanzato, V.A. et al. Increased small particle aerosol transmission of B.1.1.7 compared with SARS-CoV-2 lineage A in vivo. Nat Microbiol 7, 213–223 (2022).

Goldman, E. Exaggerated risk of transmission of COVID-19 by fomites. Lancet Infect. Dis. 20, 892–893 (2020).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. How COVID-19 Spreads (CDC, 2021);

Greenhalgh, T. et al. Ten scientific reasons in support of airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Lancet 397, 1603–1605 (2021).

Coleman, K. K. et al. Viral load of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in respiratory aerosols emitted by patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) while breathing, talking, and singing. Clin. Infect. Dis. (2021).

Leung, N. H. L. et al. Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks. Nat. Med. 26, 676–680 (2020).

Laffeber, C., de Koning, K., Kanaar, R. & Lebbink, J. H. G. Experimental evidence for enhanced receptor binding by rapidly spreading SARS-CoV-2 variants. J. Mol. Biol. 433, 167058 (2021).