Stressor: 624

Title

To create a new stressor, from the Listing Stressors page at https://aopwiki.org/stressors click ‘New stressor.’ This will bring you to a page entitled “New Stressor” where a stressor title can be entered. Click ‘Create stressor’ to create a new Stressor page listing the stressor title at the top. More help

Sars-CoV-2

Stressor Overview

The stressor field is a structured data field that can be used to annotate an AOP with standardised terms identifying stressors known to trigger the MIE/AOP. Most often these are chemical names selected from established chemical ontologies. However, depending on the information available, this could also refer to chemical categories (i.e., groups of chemicals with defined structural features known to trigger the MIE). It can also include non-chemical stressors such as genetic or environmental factors. More help

AOPs Including This Stressor

This table is automatically generated and lists the AOPs associated with this Stressor. More help

Events Including This Stressor

This table is automatically generated and lists the Key Events associated with this Stressor. More help

Chemical Table

The Chemical Table lists chemicals associated with a stressor. This table contains information about the User’s term for a chemical, the DTXID, Preferred name, CAS number, JChem InChIKey, and Indigo InChIKey.To add a chemical associated with a particular stressor, next to the Chemical Table click ‘Add chemical.’ This will redirect you to a page entitled “New Stressor Chemical.’ The dialog box can be used to search for chemical by name, CAS number, JChem InChIKey, and Indigo InChIKey. Searching by these fields will bring forward a drop down list of existing stressor chemicals formatted as  Preferred name, “CAS- preferred name,” “JChem InChIKey – preferred name,” or “Indigo InChIKey- preferred name,” depending on by which field you perform the search. It may take several moments for the drop down list to display. Select an entity from the drop down list and click ‘Add chemical.’ This will return you to the Stressor Page, where the new record should be in the ‘Chemical Table’ on the page.To remove a chemical associated with a particular stressor, in the Chemical Table next to the chemical you wish to delete, click ‘Remove’ and then click 'OK.' The chemical should no longer be visible in the Chemical table. More help

AOP Evidence

This table is automatically generated and includes the AOPs with this associated stressor as well as the evidence term and evidence text from this AOP Stressor. More help
Binding of Sars-CoV-2 spike protein to ACE 2 receptors expressed on brain cells (neuronal and non-neuronal) leads to neuroinflammation resulting in encephalitis

There is no evidence text for this AOP

Dysregulated prolonged Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) activation leading to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and Multiple Organ Dysfunction (MOD)

Choudhury A, Das NC, Patra R, Mukherjee S. In silico analyses on the comparative sensing of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA by the intracellular TLRs of humans. J Med Virol. 2021 Apr;93(4):2476-2486. doi: 10.1002/jmv.26776. Epub 2021 Jan 12. PMID: 33404091.

Paul Digard, Hui Min Lee, Colin Sharp, Finn Grey, Eleanor Gaunt, Intra-genome variability in the dinucleotide composition of SARS-CoV-2, Virus Evolution, Volume 6, Issue 2, July 2020, veaa057, https://doi-org.proxy.library.uu.nl/10.1093/ve/veaa057

Tal Y, Adini A, Eran A, Adini I. Racial disparity in Covid-19 mortality rates - A plausible explanation. Clin Immunol. 2020;217:108481. doi:10.1016/j.clim.2020.108481

Bezemer GFG, Garssen J. TLR9 and COVID-19: A Multidisciplinary Theory of a Multifaceted Therapeutic Target. Front Pharmacol. 2021;11:601685. Published 2021 Jan 15. doi:10.3389/fphar.2020.601685

Binding of viral S-glycoprotein to ACE2 receptor leading to acute respiratory distress associated mortality

There is no evidence text for this AOP

Decreased fibrinolysis and activated bradykinin system leading to hyperinflammation

There is no evidence text for this AOP

Binding of SARS-CoV-2 to ACE2 in enterocytes leads to increased intestinal permeability resulting in GI disorders

There is no evidence text for this AOP

Sars-CoV-2 Interferon-I antiviral response antagonism and increased viral production leading to viral infection proliferation

There is no evidence text for this AOP

Event Evidence

This table is automatically generated and includes the Events with this associated stressor as well as the evidence text from this Event Stressor. More help
ACE2 binding to viral S-protein

There is no evidence text for this event.

N/A, Neurodegeneration

There is no evidence text for this event.

Neuroinflammation

There is no evidence text for this event.

Encephalitis

There is no evidence text for this event.

Coagulation

There is no evidence text for this event.

Induced Toll Like Receptor (TLR) Dysregulation

There is no evidence text for this event.

Increased coronavirus production

There is no evidence text for this event.

Increased susceptibility to viral entry

There is no evidence text for this event.

Thrombosis and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

There is no evidence text for this event.

Bradykinin system, hyperactivated

There is no evidence text for this event.

Fibrinolysis, decreased

There is no evidence text for this event.

Hyperinflammation

There is no evidence text for this event.

Intestinal permeability, increased

Evidence: High levels of plasma markers of intestinal hyperpermeability and microbial translocation in moderate and severe COVID-19 patients 9,10 .

Gastrointestinal disorders

Percentage of COVID-19 patients presenting gastrointestinal disorders varies from studies between 5% to >60%(Effenberger, 2020; Hayashi et al., 2021; Jin et al., 2020; Nobel et al., 2020; Redd et al., 2020).

Stressor Info

Text sections under this subheading include the Chemical/Category Description and Characterization of Exposure. More help
Chemical/Category Description
To edit the Chemical/Category Description” section, on a KER page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “Chemical/Category Description” section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “Chemical/Category Description”  section on the page. More help
Characterization of Exposure
To edit the “Characterization of Exposure” section, on a Stressor page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “Characterization of Exposure”  section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “Characterization of Exposure” section on the page. More help

References

List of the literature that was cited for this Stressor description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide (https://www.oecd.org/about/publishing/OECD-Style-Guide-Third-Edition.pdf) (OECD, 2015).To edit the “References” section, on a Stressor page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “References” section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “References” section on the page. More help