This AOP is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
DNA damage leading to population decline via programmed cell death
Point of Contact
- Knut Erik Tollefsen
- You Song
- Li Xie
|Author status||OECD status||OECD project||SAAOP status|
|Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
This AOP was last modified on June 04, 2021 17:26
|Increase, DNA damage||May 08, 2019 12:28|
|Increase, Programmed cell death||April 12, 2021 02:17|
|Decrease, Leaf development||October 10, 2017 07:54|
|Decrease, Reproduction||April 11, 2021 17:38|
|Decrease, Population trajectory||September 03, 2021 11:24|
|Increase, DNA Damage leads to Increase, Programmed cell death||April 11, 2021 09:21|
|Increase, Programmed cell death leads to Decrease, Leaf development||April 11, 2021 09:21|
|Decrease, Leaf development leads to Decrease, Reproduction||April 11, 2021 08:26|
|Decrease, Reproduction leads to Decrease, Population trajectory||April 11, 2021 08:26|
|Ionizing Radiation||May 07, 2019 12:12|
|Ultraviolet B radiation||April 15, 2017 16:04|
|Gamma radiation||April 15, 2017 16:04|
Ionising and non-ionizing radiation can induce DNA damage (strand breaks, abatic sites, oxidized bases, and DNA-proteincross-links) in cells of primary producers. Excessive DNA strand breaks can trigger programmed cell death leading to reduction in development (size and weight) and/or reproduction (number of organisms and/or leaves) to reduce the overall population.
Summary of the AOP
Molecular Initiating Events (MIE)
Key Events (KE)
Adverse Outcomes (AO)
|Sequence||Type||Event ID||Title||Short name|
|MIE||1194||Increase, DNA damage||Increase, DNA Damage|
|KE||1864||Increase, Programmed cell death||Increase, Programmed cell death|
|KE||1479||Decrease, Leaf development||Decrease, Leaf development|
Relationships Between Two Key Events (Including MIEs and AOs)
|Increase, DNA Damage leads to Increase, Programmed cell death||adjacent||High||High|
|Increase, Programmed cell death leads to Decrease, Leaf development||adjacent||Moderate||Moderate|
|Decrease, Leaf development leads to Decrease, Reproduction||adjacent||Moderate||Moderate|
|Decrease, Reproduction leads to Decrease, Population trajectory||adjacent||High||High|
Life Stage Applicability
|All life stages|
|Adult, reproductively mature||High|
|Lemna minor||Lemna minor||High||NCBI|
Overall Assessment of the AOP
The evidence for the MIE, KE and AO were considered Moderate to High for all Key Events and Key Event Relationships. The overall assessment of the AOP were considered Moderate.
Domain of Applicability
Taxonomic: all primary producers
Life stage: all stages
Sex: both genders (dioecious plants) and not relevant (hermaphrodites)
Stressors: Ionizing radiation, Ultraviolet B radiation (UVB)
Essentiality of the Key Events
The essentiality of all key events was considered as Moderate to High. Essentiality evaluations were mainly based on specifically designed studies demonstrating the expected effect pattern predicted by the AOP to occur after exposure to Cobalt-60 external radiation (ionising radiation) and Ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) .
Overall confidence in the AOP:
Quantitative data were generated in studies with Lemna minor and the freshwater algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exposed to external gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source (ionizing radiation) and artificial UVB (non-ionizing radiation). The quantitative understanding of the AOP was therefore considered to be Moderate for these species.
Considerations for Potential Applications of the AOP (optional)
Xie, L., Solhaug, K. A., Song, Y., Brede, D. A., Lind, O. C., Salbu, B., & Tollefsen, K. E. (2019). Modes of action and adverse effects of gamma radiation in an aquatic macrophyte Lemna minor. Science of the Total Environment, 680, 23-34.
Xie, L., Solhaug, K. A., Song, Y., Johnsen, B., Olsen, J. E., & Tollefsen, K. E. (2020). Effects of artificial ultraviolet B radiation on the macrophyte Lemna minor: a conceptual study for toxicity pathway characterization. Planta, 252(5), 1-18.