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Key Event Title
Deposition of Energy
|Level of Biological Organization|
Key Event Components
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
|AOP Name||Role of event in AOP||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|Deposition of energy leading to lung cancer||MolecularInitiatingEvent||Vinita Chauhan (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite||EAGMST Approved|
|Ionizing Radiation-Induced AML||MolecularInitiatingEvent||Dag Anders Brede (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
|ROS production leading to population decline via photosynthesis inhibition||MolecularInitiatingEvent||Knut Erik Tollefsen (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
|ROS production leading to population decline via mitochondrial dysfunction||MolecularInitiatingEvent||Knut Erik Tollefsen (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
|DNA damage leading to population decline via programmed cell death||MolecularInitiatingEvent||Knut Erik Tollefsen (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
|Deposition of ionising energy leads to population decline via pollen abnormal||MolecularInitiatingEvent||Li Xie (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
|Deposition of energy leading to population decline via DSB and follicular atresia||MolecularInitiatingEvent||Knut Erik Tollefsen (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
|Deposition of energy leading to population decline via DSB and apoptosis||MolecularInitiatingEvent||Knut Erik Tollefsen (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
|Energy deposition leading to population decline via DNA oxidation and oocyte apoptosis||MolecularInitiatingEvent||You Song (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
|Energy deposition leading to population decline via DNA oxidation and follicular atresia||MolecularInitiatingEvent||You Song (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
|Increased DNA damages during embryonic development lead to microcephaly||MolecularInitiatingEvent||Olivier ARMANT (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
|Deposition of energy leads to reduced cocoon hatchability||MolecularInitiatingEvent||Deborah Oughton (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
|Deposition of energy leads to vascular remodeling||MolecularInitiatingEvent||Vinita Chauhan (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
|All life stages||High|
Key Event Description
Deposition of energy refers to events where subatomic particles or electromagnetic waves of sufficient energy cause ionization in the media through which they transverse (Beir, 1999). The resulting energy can cause the ejection of electrons from atoms and molecules, thereby breaking chemical bonds and ionizing atoms and molecules. The energy of these subatomic particles or electromagnetic waves ranges from 124 KeV to 5.4 MeV, and is dependent on the source and type of radiation. Not all electromagnetic radiation is ionizing; as the incident radiation must have sufficient energy to free electrons from the atom or molecule’s electron orbitals. The energy can induce direct and indirect ionization events. Direct ionization is the principal path where charged particles interact with DNA to cause a biological damage. Photons, which are electromagenetic waves can also cause direct ionization. Indirect ionization produces free radicals of other molecules, specifically water, which can transform to damage critical targets such as DNA (Beir, 1999). There are no chemical mimetics or prototypes of energy deposition. Given the fundamental nature of energy deposition by nuclei, nucleons or elementary particles in material, this process is universal to all biological contexts. It is a phenomenon dictated by radioactive decay laws. As such chemical initiators are also not applicable to this MIE.
How It Is Measured or Detected
OECD Approved Assay
Monte Carlo Simulations (Geant4)
Douglass et al., 2013; Douglass et al. 2012
Monte Carlo simulations are based on a computational algorithm that mathematically models the deposition of energy into materials.
Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detector (FNTD)
Sawakuchi, 2016; Niklas, 2013; Koaira et al., 2015
FNTDs are biocompatible chips with crystals of aluminium oxide doped with carbon and magnesium; used in conjuction with fluorescent microscopy, these FNTDs allow for the visualization and the linear energy transfer (LET) quantification of tracks produced by the deposition of energy into a material.
Domain of Applicability
Energy can be deposited into any substrate, both living and non-living; it is independent of age, taxa, sex, or life-stage.
Alloni, AD. et al.(2014),” Modeling Dose Deposition and DNA Damage Due to Low-Energy β – Emitters.”, Radiation Research.182(3):322–330. doi:10.1667/RR13664.1.
Beir, V. et al. (1999), “ The Mechanistic Basis of Radon-Induced Lung Cancer.”, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK233261/.
Douglass, M. et al. (2013),” Monte Carlo investigation of the increased radiation deposition due to gold nanoparticles using kilovoltage and megavoltage photons in a 3D randomized cell model.”, Med Phys. 40(7), 071710. doi:10.1118/1.4808150.
Douglass, M. et al. (2012),” Development of a randomized 3D cell model for Monte Carlo microdosimetry simulations.”, Med Phys. 39(6):3509-3519, doi:10.1118/1.4719963.
Friedland, W. et al. (2017),” Comprehensive track-structure based evaluation of DNA damage by light ions from radiotherapy- relevant energies down to stopping.”, Nat Publ Gr.1–15. doi:10.1038/srep45161.
Hada, M. & Georgakilas, AG. (2008), “Formation of Clustered DNA Damage after High-LET Irradiation.” J Radiat Res. 49(3):203–210. doi:10.1269/jrr.07123.
Hunter, N. & Muirhead, CR. (2009).” Review of relative biological effectiveness dependence on linear energy transfer for low-LET radiations Review of relative biological effectiveness dependence.”, Journal of Radiological Protection. 29(1):5-21. doi:10.1088/0952-4746/29/1/R01.
Kodaira, S. & Konishi, T. (2015), “Co-visualization of DNA damage and ion traversals in live mammalian cells using a fluorescent nuclear track detector.” Journal of Radiation Research. 360–365. doi:10.1093/jrr/rru091.
Liamsuwan, T. (2014).” Microdosimetry of proton and carbon ions.”, Med Phys. 41(8):081721. doi: 10.1118/1.4888338.
Lorat, Y. (2015),” Nanoscale analysis of clustered DNA damage after high-LET irradiation by quantitative electron microscopy – The heavy burden to repair.”, DNA Repair (Amst). 28:93–106. doi:10.1016/j.dnarep.2015.01.007.
Nikitaki, Z. et al. (2016), “Measurement of complex DNA damage induction and repair in human cellular systems after exposure to ionizing radiations of varying linear energy transfer ( LET ).”,Free Radical Research. 50(sup1):S64-S78.doi:10.1080/10715762.2016.1232484.
Niklas, M. et al. (2013), “Engineering cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detectors.”, Radiation Oncology. 8:141. doi: 10.1186/1748-717X-8-141.
Okayasu, R. (2012a), “heavy ions — a mini review.”, Int J Cancer. 1000:991–1000. doi:10.1002/ijc.26445.
Okayasu, R. (2012b), “Repair of DNA damage induced by accelerated heavy ions-A mini review.”, Int J Cancer. 130(5):991–1000. doi:10.1002/ijc.26445.
Sawakuchi, GO. & Akselrod, MS. (2016), “Nanoscale measurements of proton tracks using fluorescent nuclear track detectors.”,Med Phys. 43(5):2485–2490. doi:10.1118/1.4947128.