This AOP is licensed under the BY-SA license. This license allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, so long as attribution is given to the creator. The license allows for commercial use. If you remix, adapt, or build upon the material, you must license the modified material under identical terms.

AOP: 401


A descriptive phrase which references both the Molecular Initiating Event and Adverse Outcome.It should take the form “MIE leading to AO”. For example, “Aromatase inhibition leading to reproductive dysfunction” where Aromatase inhibition is the MIE and reproductive dysfunction the AO. In cases where the MIE is unknown or undefined, the earliest known KE in the chain (i.e., furthest upstream) should be used in lieu of the MIE and it should be made clear that the stated event is a KE and not the MIE.  More help

G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) signal pathway in the lipid metabolism disrupting effects

Short name
A name that succinctly summarises the information from the title. This name should not exceed 90 characters. More help
endocrine disrupting effect
The current version of the Developer's Handbook will be automatically populated into the Handbook Version field when a new AOP page is created.Authors have the option to switch to a newer (but not older) Handbook version any time thereafter. More help
Handbook Version v2.0

Graphical Representation

A graphical representation of the AOP.This graphic should list all KEs in sequence, including the MIE (if known) and AO, and the pair-wise relationships (links or KERs) between those KEs. More help
Click to download graphical representation template Explore AOP in a Third Party Tool


The names and affiliations of the individual(s)/organisation(s) that created/developed the AOP. More help

Xiaoqing Wang, Fei Li, Yuefa Teng, Chenglong Ji, Huifeng Wu

Point of Contact

The user responsible for managing the AOP entry in the AOP-KB and controlling write access to the page by defining the contributors as described in the next section.   More help


Users with write access to the AOP page.  Entries in this field are controlled by the Point of Contact. More help
  • Fei Li


This field is used to identify coaches who supported the development of the AOP.Each coach selected must be a registered author. More help

OECD Information Table

Provides users with information concerning how actively the AOP page is being developed and whether it is part of the OECD Workplan and has been reviewed and/or endorsed. OECD Project: Assigned upon acceptance onto OECD workplan. This project ID is managed and updated (if needed) by the OECD. OECD Status: For AOPs included on the OECD workplan, ‘OECD status’ tracks the level of review/endorsement of the AOP . This designation is managed and updated by the OECD. Journal-format Article: The OECD is developing co-operation with Scientific Journals for the review and publication of AOPs, via the signature of a Memorandum of Understanding. When the scientific review of an AOP is conducted by these Journals, the journal review panel will review the content of the Wiki. In addition, the Journal may ask the AOP authors to develop a separate manuscript (i.e. Journal Format Article) using a format determined by the Journal for Journal publication. In that case, the journal review panel will be required to review both the Wiki content and the Journal Format Article. The Journal will publish the AOP reviewed through the Journal Format Article. OECD iLibrary published version: OECD iLibrary is the online library of the OECD. The version of the AOP that is published there has been endorsed by the OECD. The purpose of publication on iLibrary is to provide a stable version over time, i.e. the version which has been reviewed and revised based on the outcome of the review. AOPs are viewed as living documents and may continue to evolve on the AOP-Wiki after their OECD endorsement and publication.   More help
OECD Project # OECD Status Reviewer's Reports Journal-format Article OECD iLibrary Published Version
This AOP was last modified on May 26, 2023 03:09

Revision dates for related pages

Page Revision Date/Time
protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) activation July 18, 2022 05:03
Activation, PI3K April 13, 2017 10:41
Activation, AKT April 12, 2017 14:27
Activation, mTORC1 April 12, 2017 14:28
Activation, PPARα December 28, 2020 12:48
Abnormal lipid metabolism April 07, 2022 09:21
Down Regulation, CPT1A September 16, 2017 10:15
Up Regulation, SREBF2 September 16, 2017 10:17
Up Regulation, SCD-1 September 16, 2017 10:15
N/A, Steatohepatisis November 27, 2017 13:41
Triphenyl phosphate March 30, 2020 16:54


A concise and informative summation of the AOP under development that can stand-alone from the AOP page. The aim is to capture the highlights of the AOP and its potential scientific and regulatory relevance. More help

TPP could damage the structures of cell membranes and exert an agonistic effect of GPER as the molecular initiating event. Then, the activated GPER could trigger the PI3K-Akt/NCOR1 and mTOR/S6K2/PPARα transduction pathways as key event 1 (KE1) and affect the process of lipid metabolism and synthesis (CPT1A, CPT2, SREBF2 and SCD) as KE2. As a result, these alterations led to lipid accumulation as adverse effect at cellular-levels. Furthermore, the potential outcomes (such as immunity damage, weight change and steatohepatitis) at high biological levels were expanded.

AOP Development Strategy


Used to provide background information for AOP reviewers and users that is considered helpful in understanding the biology underlying the AOP and the motivation for its development.The background should NOT provide an overview of the AOP, its KEs or KERs, which are captured in more detail below. More help

Triphenyl phosphate (TPP) was appeared as an important candidate metabolism disruptors. TPP was one of the high production volume flame retardants, which has been used in various commercial mixtures, thus causing the frequent detection and high-dose exposure in both environmental media and biota. Toxicity studies had revealed that TPP could interact with essential regulators of lipids to induce lipid abnormalities and metabolic disorders. TPP could affect peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and liver X receptors (LXRs) to induce lipid abnormalities . It also could modulate saturation of phospholipids (Hu et al., 2020) and increase the cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations in bloods. Under this circumstance, it is extraordinarily exigent to assess the health risk of TPP.


Provides a description of the approaches to the identification, screening and quality assessment of the data relevant to identification of the key events and key event relationships included in the AOP or AOP network.This information is important as a basis to support the objective/envisaged application of the AOP by the regulatory community and to facilitate the reuse of its components.  Suggested content includes a rationale for and description of the scope and focus of the data search and identification strategy/ies including the nature of preliminary scoping and/or expert input, the overall literature screening strategy and more focused literature surveys to identify additional information (including e.g., key search terms, databases and time period searched, any tools used). More help

Summary of the AOP

This section is for information that describes the overall AOP.The information described in section 1 is entered on the upper portion of an AOP page within the AOP-Wiki. This is where some background information may be provided, the structure of the AOP is described, and the KEs and KERs are listed. More help


Molecular Initiating Events (MIE)
An MIE is a specialised KE that represents the beginning (point of interaction between a prototypical stressor and the biological system) of an AOP. More help
Key Events (KE)
A measurable event within a specific biological level of organisation. More help
Adverse Outcomes (AO)
An AO is a specialized KE that represents the end (an adverse outcome of regulatory significance) of an AOP. More help
Type Event ID Title Short name
KE 1310 Activation, PI3K Activation, PI3K
KE 1299 Activation, AKT Activation, AKT
KE 1300 Activation, mTORC1 Activation, mTORC1
KE 227 Activation, PPARα Activation, PPARα
KE 1995 Abnormal lipid metabolism Abnormal lipid metabolism
KE 472 Down Regulation, CPT1A Down Regulation, CPT1A
KE 1284 Up Regulation, SREBF2 Up Regulation, SREBF2
KE 462 Up Regulation, SCD-1 Up Regulation, SCD-1
AO 1489 N/A, Steatohepatisis steatohepatitis

Relationships Between Two Key Events (Including MIEs and AOs)

This table summarizes all of the KERs of the AOP and is populated in the AOP-Wiki as KERs are added to the AOP.Each table entry acts as a link to the individual KER description page. More help

Network View

This network graphic is automatically generated based on the information provided in the MIE(s), KEs, AO(s), KERs and Weight of Evidence (WoE) summary tables. The width of the edges representing the KERs is determined by its WoE confidence level, with thicker lines representing higher degrees of confidence. This network view also shows which KEs are shared with other AOPs. More help

Prototypical Stressors

A structured data field that can be used to identify one or more “prototypical” stressors that act through this AOP. Prototypical stressors are stressors for which responses at multiple key events have been well documented. More help

Life Stage Applicability

The life stage for which the AOP is known to be applicable. More help

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) can be selected.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available. More help

Sex Applicability

The sex for which the AOP is known to be applicable. More help

Overall Assessment of the AOP

Addressess the relevant biological domain of applicability (i.e., in terms of taxa, sex, life stage, etc.) and Weight of Evidence (WoE) for the overall AOP as a basis to consider appropriate regulatory application (e.g., priority setting, testing strategies or risk assessment). More help

Domain of Applicability

Addressess the relevant biological domain(s) of applicability in terms of sex, life-stage, taxa, and other aspects of biological context. More help

Essentiality of the Key Events

The essentiality of KEs can only be assessed relative to the impact of manipulation of a given KE (e.g., experimentally blocking or exacerbating the event) on the downstream sequence of KEs defined for the AOP. Consequently, evidence supporting essentiality is assembled on the AOP page, rather than on the independent KE pages that are meant to stand-alone as modular units without reference to other KEs in the sequence. The nature of experimental evidence that is relevant to assessing essentiality relates to the impact on downstream KEs and the AO if upstream KEs are prevented or modified. This includes: Direct evidence: directly measured experimental support that blocking or preventing a KE prevents or impacts downstream KEs in the pathway in the expected fashion. Indirect evidence: evidence that modulation or attenuation in the magnitude of impact on a specific KE (increased effect or decreased effect) is associated with corresponding changes (increases or decreases) in the magnitude or frequency of one or more downstream KEs. More help

Evidence Assessment

Addressess the biological plausibility, empirical support, and quantitative understanding from each KER in an AOP. More help

GPER活化被鉴定为TPP通过GPER信号通路诱导的脂质代谢异常中的主要MIE。TPP可以通过 影响TM6来诱导随后的信号通路包括PI3K-Akt / NCOR1mTOR / S6K2 / PPARα作为KE1(图6)来发挥GPER的激动作用。CPT1ACPT2)与脂肪酸氧化代谢有关,并上调与脂质和脂肪酸合成(KE2)相关的基因(SREBF2SCD)的表达。这些KLE最终通过与脂质代谢异常的分子因果关系导致脂质过度积累

Known Modulating Factors

Modulating factors (MFs) may alter the shape of the response-response function that describes the quantitative relationship between two KES, thus having an impact on the progression of the pathway or the severity of the AO.The evidence supporting the influence of various modulating factors is assembled within the individual KERs. More help
Modulating Factor (MF) Influence or Outcome KER(s) involved

Quantitative Understanding

Optional field to provide quantitative weight of evidence descriptors.  More help

Considerations for Potential Applications of the AOP (optional)

Addressess potential applications of an AOP to support regulatory decision-making.This may include, for example, possible utility for test guideline development or refinement, development of integrated testing and assessment approaches, development of (Q)SARs / or chemical profilers to facilitate the grouping of chemicals for subsequent read-across, screening level hazard assessments or even risk assessment. More help


List of the literature that was cited for this AOP. More help