API XML

Aop: 94

AOP Title

?


Sodium channel inhibition leading to congenital malformations

Short name:

?

sodium channel inhibition 3

Graphical Representation

?

Click to download graphical representation template

Authors

?


Kellie Fay

Point of Contact

?


Kellie Fay   (email point of contact)

Contributors

?


  • Kellie Fay

Status

?

Author status OECD status OECD project SAAOP status
Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite 1.29 Under Development


This AOP was last modified on January 27, 2018 15:34

?

Revision dates for related pages

Page Revision Date/Time
Inhibition, sodium channel September 16, 2017 10:15
Increased, Atrioventricular block and bradycardia September 16, 2017 10:14
Increased, Respiratory distress/arrest September 16, 2017 10:14
N/A, hypoxia December 03, 2016 16:37
Increased, amputations December 03, 2016 16:37
Decreased, Sodium conductance 1 September 16, 2017 10:15
Increased, Atrioventricular block and bradycardia leads to Increased, Respiratory distress/arrest December 03, 2016 16:37
Increased, Respiratory distress/arrest leads to N/A, hypoxia December 03, 2016 16:37
N/A, hypoxia leads to Increased, amputations December 03, 2016 16:37
Inhibition, sodium channel leads to Decreased, Sodium conductance 1 December 03, 2016 16:37
Decreased, Sodium conductance 1 leads to Increased, Atrioventricular block and bradycardia December 03, 2016 16:37

Abstract

?


Anti-epileptic and anti-arrhythmic drugs which block voltage-gated ion channels (e.g., voltage-gated sodium channels) are associated with major congenital malformations including amputations.



Background (optional)

?



Summary of the AOP

?


Events: Molecular Initiating Events (MIE)

?

Key Events (KE)

?

Adverse Outcomes (AO)

?

Sequence Type Event ID Title Short name
1 MIE 584 Inhibition, sodium channel Inhibition, sodium channel
2 KE 444 Increased, Atrioventricular block and bradycardia Increased, Atrioventricular block and bradycardia
3 KE 445 Increased, Respiratory distress/arrest Increased, Respiratory distress/arrest
4 KE 590 N/A, hypoxia N/A, hypoxia
5 KE 585 Decreased, Sodium conductance 1 Decreased, Sodium conductance 1
6 AO 591 Increased, amputations Increased, amputations

Relationships Between Two Key Events
(Including MIEs and AOs)

?

Title Adjacency Evidence Quantitative Understanding
Increased, Atrioventricular block and bradycardia leads to Increased, Respiratory distress/arrest adjacent Moderate
Increased, Respiratory distress/arrest leads to N/A, hypoxia adjacent
Inhibition, sodium channel leads to Decreased, Sodium conductance 1 adjacent High
Decreased, Sodium conductance 1 leads to Increased, Atrioventricular block and bradycardia adjacent Moderate
N/A, hypoxia leads to Increased, amputations non-adjacent Moderate

Network View

?

 

Stressors

?

Life Stage Applicability

?

Life stage Evidence
Foetal High

Taxonomic Applicability

?

Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Human, rat, mouse Human, rat, mouse NCBI

Sex Applicability

?

Overall Assessment of the AOP

?



Domain of Applicability

?

Life Stage Applicability, Taxonomic Applicability, Sex Applicability
Mammals exposed in utero to sodium channel blockers (or similar) have significantly higher rates of cardiovascular anomalies and amputations (shortened limbs, missing digits, etc). Hypoxic conditions generated from poor heart function during development result in hemorrhages in distal parts of the embryo/fetus (Danielsson et al., 2003; Webster et al., 1996; Webster 2007). Similar amputations may not be relevant for species which develop in an egg and receive their oxygen supply via diffusion from the surrounding environment (air or water).


Essentiality of the Key Events

?

Molecular Initiating Event Summary, Key Event Summary
Rat whole embryo cultures exposed to sodium channel blockers (experimental drugs AZA and AZB)for 1 hr had severly reduced heart rates (bradycardia) but returned to normal within 1 hr of drug washout (Nilsson et al., 2013).


Evidence Assessment

?


Quantitative Understanding

?


Considerations for Potential Applications of the AOP (optional)

?



References

?


Danielsson, B.R., Skold, A., and Azarbayjani, F. 2001. Class III Antiarrhythmics and Phenytoin: Teratogenicity due to embryonic cardiac dysrhythmia and reoxygenation damage. Current Pharmaceutical Design 7:787-802.

Webster, W., Brown-Woodman, P., Snow, M., and Danielsson, B. 1996. Teratogenic potential of almokalant, dofetilide, and d-sotalol: drugs with potassium channel blocking activity. Teratology 53:168-175.

Webster, W.S. and Abela, D. 2007. The effect of hypoxia in development. Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews 81:215-228.