API

Event: 25

Key Event Title

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Agonism, Androgen receptor

Short name

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Agonism, Androgen receptor

Key Event Component

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Process Object Action
androgen receptor activity androgen receptor increased

Key Event Overview


AOPs Including This Key Event

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AOP Name Role of event in AOP
Androgen receptor agonism leading to reproductive dysfunction MolecularInitiatingEvent

Stressors

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Level of Biological Organization

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Biological Organization
Molecular

Cell term

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Organ term

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Taxonomic Applicability

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Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Strong NCBI
medaka Oryzias latipes Strong NCBI

Life Stage Applicability

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Life stage Evidence
Adult, reproductively mature Strong

Sex Applicability

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Term Evidence
Female Strong

How This Key Event Works

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Site of action: The molecular site of action is the ligand binding domain of the AR. This particular key event specifically refers to interaction with nuclear AR.  Downstream KE responses to activation of membrane ARs may be different. The cellular site of action for the molecular initiating event is undefined.

Responses at the macromolecular level: Binding of a ligand, including xenobiotics that act as AR agonists, to the cytosolic AR mediates a conformational shift that facilitates dissociation from accompanying heat shock proteins and dimerization with another AR (Prescott and Coetzee 2006; Claessens et al. 2008; Centenera et al. 2008). Homodimerization unveils a nuclear localization sequence, allowing the AR-ligand complex to translocate to the nucleus and bind to androgen-response elements (AREs) (Claessens et al. 2008; Cutress et al. 2008). This elicits recruitment of additional transcription factors and transcriptional activation of androgen-responsive genes (Heemers and Tindall 2007).

AR paralogs:

  • Most vertebrates have a single gene coding for nuclear AR. However, most fish have two AR genes (AR-A, AR-B) as a result of a whole genome duplication event after the split of Acipenseriformes from teleosts but before the divergence of Osteoglossiformes (Douard et al. 2008).
  • AR-B has been lost in Cypriniformes, Siluriformes, Characiformes, and Salmoniformes (Douard et al. 2008).
  • In Percomorphs, AR-B has accumulated significant substitutions in the both ligand binding and DNA binding domains (Douard et al. 2008).
  • Differential ligand selectivity and subcellular localization has been reported for AR paralogs in some fish species (e.g., Bain et al. 2015), but the difference is not easily generalized based on available data in the literature. 

How It Is Measured or Detected

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Measurement/detection:

  • In vitro methods:
    • OECD Test No. 458: Stably transfected human androgen receptor transcriptional activation assay for detection of androgen agonists and antagonists has been reviewed and validated by OECD and is well suited for detection of this key event (OECD 2016).
    • Binding to the androgen receptor can be directly measured in cell free systems based on displacement of a radio-labeled standard (generally testosterone or DHT) in a competitive binding assay (e.g., (Olsson et al. 2005; Sperry and Thomas 1999; Wilson et al. 2007; Tilley et al. 1989; Kim et al. 2010).
    • Cell based transcriptional activation assays are typically required to differentiate agonists from antagonists, in vitro. A number of reporter gene assays have been developed and used to screen chemicals for AR agonist and/or antagonist activity (e.g., (Wilson et al. 2002; van der Burg et al. 2010; Mak et al. 1999; Araki et al. 2005).
    • Expression of androgen responsive proteins like spiggin in primary cell cultures has also been used to detect AR agonist activity (Jolly et al. 2006).
  • In vivo methods
    • In fish, phenotypic masculinization of females has frequently been used as an indirect measurement of in vivo androgen receptor agonism.
      • Development of nuptial tubercles, a dorsal fatpad, and a characteristic banding pattern has been observed in female fathead minnows exposed to androgen agonists (Ankley et al. 2003; Jensen et al. 2006; Ankley et al. 2010; LaLone et al. 2013; OECD 2012).
      • Anal fin elongation in female western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) has similarly been viewed as evidence of AR activation (Raut et al. 2011; Sone et al. 2005).
      • In medaka, development of papillary processes, which normally only appear on the second to seventh or eighth fin aray of the anal fin, has also been used as an indirect measure of androgen receptor agonism (OECD 2012).
      • Production of the nest building glue, spiggin, in three female 3-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has also been well documented as an indicator of androgen receptor agonism (Jakobsson et al. 1999; Hahlbeck et al. 2004). Quantification of the spiggin protein in exposed female 3-spined stickleback or green fluorescence protein expression in a transgenic spg1-gfp medaka line (Sébillot et al. 2014) can be used to detect androgen receptor agonism.
  • High Throughput Screening
    • ​Measures of AR agonism have been included in high throughput screening programs, such as US EPA's Toxcast program. Toxcast assays relevant for screening chemicals for their ability to bind and/or activate the AR include:
      • ATG_AR_TRANS A cell based assay that can differentiate agonism from antagonism
      • NVS_NR_hAR A cell free assay using recombinant human AR. Can detect binding, but cannot distinguish agonism from antagonism.
      • NVS_NR_rAR A cell free assay using recombinant rat AR. Can detect binding, but cannot distinguish agonism from antagonism.
      • OT_AR_ARELUC_AG_1440 A cell based assay that measures expression of a reporter gene under control of androgen-responsive elements. Can distinguish agonism from antagonism.
      • Tox21_AR_BLA_Agonist_ratio A cell based assay with an inducible reporter. Can distinguish agonists from antagonists.
      • Tox21_AR_LUC_MDAKB2_agonist A cell based assay with an inducible reporter. Can distinguish agonists from antagonists.
    • Assay descriptions

Evidence Supporting Taxonomic Applicability

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Taxonomic applicability: Androgen receptor orthologs are primarily limited to vertebrates (Baker 1997; Thornton 2001; Eick and Thornton 2011; Markov and Laudet 2011). Therefore, this MIE would generally be viewed as relevant to vertebrates, but not invertebrates.


Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor


Overview for Molecular Initiating Event

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Characterization of chemical properties: Androgen receptor binding chemicals can be grouped into two broad structural domains, steroidal and non-steroidal (Yin et al. 2003). Steroidal androgens consist primarily of testosterone and its derivatives (Yin et al. 2003). Many of the non-steroidal AR binding chemicals studied are derivatives of well known non-steroidal AR antagonists like bicalutamide, hydroxyflutamide, and nilutamide (Yin et al. 2003). Nonetheless, a number of QSARs and SARs that consider AR binding of both these pharmaceutical agents as well as environmental chemicals have been developed (Waller et al. 1996; Serafimova et al. 2002; Todorov et al. 2011; Hong et al. 2003; Bohl et al. 2004). However, it has been shown that very minor structural differences can dramatically impact function as either an agonist or antagonist (Yin et al. 2003; Bohl et al. 2004; Norris et al. 2009), making it difficult at present to predict agonist versus antagonist activity based on chemical structure alone.

In vivo considerations: A variety of steroidal androgens can be converted to estrogens in vitro through the action of cytochrome P450 19 (aromatase). Structures subject to aromatization may behave in vivo as estrogens despite exhibiting potent androgen receptor agonism in vitro.



5alpha-Dihydrotestosterone

Chemical is a non-aromatizable androgen.


References

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  • Ankley GT, Gray LE. Cross-species conservation of endocrine pathways: a critical analysis of tier 1 fish and rat screening assays with 12 model chemicals. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2013 Apr;32(5):1084-7. doi: 10.1002/etc.2151. Epub 2013 Mar 19. PubMed PMID: 23401061.
  • Ankley GT, Jensen KM, Kahl MD, Durhan EJ, Makynen EA, Cavallin JE, Martinović D, Wehmas LC, Mueller ND, Villeneuve DL. Use of chemical mixtures to differentiate mechanisms of endocrine action in a small fish model. Aquat Toxicol. 2010 Sep 1;99(3):389-96. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.05.020. Epub 2010 Jun 4. PubMed PMID: 20573408.
  • Ankley GT, Jensen KM, Makynen EA, Kahl MD, Korte JJ, Hornung MW, Henry TR, Denny JS, Leino RL, Wilson VS, Cardon MC, Hartig PC, Gray LE. Effects of the androgenic growth promoter 17-beta-trenbolone on fecundity and reproductive endocrinology of the fathead minnow. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2003 Jun;22(6):1350-60. PubMed PMID: 12785594.
  • Araki N, Ohno K, Nakai M, Takeyoshi M, Iida M. 2005. Screening for androgen receptor activities in 253 industrial chemicals by in vitro reporter gene assays using AR-EcoScreen cells. Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA 19(6): 831-842.
  • Bain PA, Ogino Y, Miyagawa S, Iguchi T, Kumar A. Differential ligand selectivity of androgen receptors α and β from Murray-Darling rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2015 Feb 1;212:84-91. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.01.024. PubMed PMID: 25644213.
  • Baker ME. 1997. Steroid receptor phylogeny and vertebrate origins. Molecular and cellular endocrinology 135(2): 101-107.
  • Bohl CE, Chang C, Mohler ML, Chen J, Miller DD, Swaan PW, et al. 2004. A ligand-based approach to identify quantitative structure-activity relationships for the androgen receptor. Journal of medicinal chemistry 47(15): 3765-3776.
  • Centenera MM, Harris JM, Tilley WD, Butler LM. 2008. The contribution of different androgen receptor domains to receptor dimerization and signaling. Molecular endocrinology 22(11): 2373-2382.
  • Claessens F, Denayer S, Van Tilborgh N, Kerkhofs S, Helsen C, Haelens A. 2008. Diverse roles of androgen receptor (AR) domains in AR-mediated signaling. Nuclear receptor signaling 6: e008.
  • Cutress ML, Whitaker HC, Mills IG, Stewart M, Neal DE. 2008. Structural basis for the nuclear import of the human androgen receptor. Journal of cell science 121(Pt 7): 957-968.
  • Douard V, Brunet F, Boussau B, Ahrens-Fath I, Vlaeminck-Guillem V, Haendler B, Laudet V, Guiguen Y. The fate of the duplicated androgen receptor in fishes: a late neofunctionalization event? BMC Evol Biol. 2008 Dec 18;8:336. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-336. PubMed PMID: 19094205
  • Eick GN, Thornton JW. 2011. Evolution of steroid receptors from an estrogen-sensitive ancestral receptor. Molecular and cellular endocrinology 334(1-2): 31-38.
  • Hahlbeck E, Katsiadaki I, Mayer I, Adolfsson-Erici M, James J, Bengtsson BE. The juvenile three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) as a model organism for endocrine disruption II--kidney hypertrophy, vitellogenin and spiggin induction. Aquat Toxicol. 2004 Dec 20;70(4):311-26
  • Hong H, Fang H, Xie Q, Perkins R, Sheehan DM, Tong W. 2003. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) model using a large diverse set of natural, synthetic and environmental chemicals for binding to the androgen receptor. SAR and QSAR in environmental research 14(5-6): 373-388.
  • Jakobsson, S., Borg, B., Haux, C. et al. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry (1999) 20: 79. doi:10.1023/A:1007776016610
  • Jensen KM, Makynen EA, Kahl MD, Ankley GT. Effects of the feedlot contaminant 17alpha-trenbolone on reproductive endocrinology of the fathead minnow. Environ Sci Technol. 2006 May 1;40(9):3112-7. PubMed PMID: 16719119.
  • Jolly C, Katsiadaki I, Le Belle N, Mayer I, Dufour S. 2006. Development of a stickleback kidney cell culture assay for the screening of androgenic and anti-androgenic endocrine disrupters. Aquatic toxicology 79(2): 158-166.
  • Kim TS, Yoon CY, Jung KK, Kim SS, Kang IH, Baek JH, et al. 2010. In vitro study of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) endocrine disruptor screening and testing methods- establishment of a recombinant rat androgen receptor (rrAR) binding assay. The Journal of toxicological sciences 35(2): 239-243.
  • LaLone CA, Villeneuve DL, Cavallin JE, Kahl MD, Durhan EJ, Makynen EA, Jensen KM, Stevens KE, Severson MN, Blanksma CA, Flynn KM, Hartig PC, Woodard JS, Berninger JP, Norberg-King TJ, Johnson RD, Ankley GT. Cross-species sensitivity to a novel androgen receptor agonist of potential environmental concern, spironolactone. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2013 Nov;32(11):2528-41. doi: 10.1002/etc.2330. Epub 2013 Sep 6. PubMed PMID: 23881739.
  • Mak P, Cruz FD, Chen S. 1999. A yeast screen system for aromatase inhibitors and ligands for androgen receptor: yeast cells transformed with aromatase and androgen receptor. Environmental health perspectives 107(11): 855-860.
  • Markov GV, Laudet V. 2011. Origin and evolution of the ligand-binding ability of nuclear receptors. Molecular and cellular endocrinology 334(1-2): 21-30.
  • Norris JD, Joseph JD, Sherk AB, Juzumiene D, Turnbull PS, Rafferty SW, et al. 2009. Differential presentation of protein interaction surfaces on the androgen receptor defines the pharmacological actions of bound ligands. Chemistry & biology 16(4): 452-460.
  • OECD (2012), Test No. 229: Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay, OECD Publishing, Paris.
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264185265-en
  • OECD (2016), Test No. 458: Stably Transfected Human Androgen Receptor Transcriptional Activation Assay for Detection of Androgenic Agonist and Antagonist Activity of Chemicals, OECD Publishing, Paris.
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264264366-en
  • Olsson P-E, Berg A, von Hofsten J, Grahn B, Hellqvist A, Larsson A, et al. 2005. Molecular cloning and characterization of a nuclear androgen receptor activated by 11-ketotestosterone. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 3: 1-17.
  • Prescott J, Coetzee GA. 2006. Molecular chaperones throughout the life cycle of the androgen receptor. Cancer letters 231(1): 12-19.
  • Serafimova R, Walker J, Mekenyan O. 2002. Androgen receptor binding affinity of pesticide "active" formulation ingredients. QSAR evaluation by COREPA method. SAR and QSAR in environmental research 13(1): 127-134.
  • Sone K, Hinago M, Itamoto M, Katsu Y, Watanabe H, Urushitani H, Tooi O, Guillette LJ Jr, Iguchi T. Effects of an androgenic growth promoter 17beta-trenbolone on masculinization of Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis affinis). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2005 Sep 1;143(2):151-60. Epub 2005 Apr 13. PubMed PMID: 16061073.
  • Sperry TS, Thomas P. 1999. Identification of two nuclear androgen receptors in kelp bass (Paralabrax clathratus) and their binding affinities for xenobiotics: comparison with Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) androgen receptors. Biology of reproduction 61(4): 1152-1161.
  • Stanko JP, Angus RA. In vivo assessment of the capacity of androstenedione to masculinize female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) exposed through dietary and static renewal methods. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2007 May;26(5):920-6. PubMed PMID: 17521138.
  • Thornton JW. 2001. Evolution of vertebrate steroid receptors from an ancestral estrogen receptor by ligand exploitation and serial genome expansions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98(10): 5671-5676.
  • Tilley WD, Marcelli M, Wilson JD, McPhaul MJ. 1989. Characterization and expression of a cDNA encoding the human androgen receptor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 86(1): 327-331.
  • Todorov M, Mombelli E, Ait-Aissa S, Mekenyan O. 2011. Androgen receptor binding affinity: a QSAR evaluation. SAR and QSAR in environmental research 22(3): 265-291.
  • van der Burg B, Winter R, Man HY, Vangenechten C, Berckmans P, Weimer M, et al. 2010. Optimization and prevalidation of the in vitro AR CALUX method to test androgenic and antiandrogenic activity of compounds. Reproductive toxicology 30(1): 18-24.
  • Waller CL, Juma BW, Gray EJ, Kelce WR. 1996. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships for androgen receptor ligands. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacolgy 137: 219-227.
  • Wilson VS, Bobseine K, Lambright CR, Gray LE. 2002. A novel cell line, MDA-kb2, that stably expresses an androgen- and glucocorticoid-responsive reporter for the detection of hormone receptor agonists and antagonists. Toxicological Sciences 66: 69-81.
  • Wilson VS, Cardon MC, Gray LE, Jr., Hartig PC. 2007. Competitive binding comparison of endocrine-disrupting compounds to recombinant androgen receptor from fathead minnow, rainbow trout, and human. Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC 26(9): 1793-1802.
  • Yin D, He Y, Perera MA, Hong SS, Marhefka C, Stourman N, et al. 2003. Key structural features of nonsteroidal ligands for binding and activation of the androgen receptor. Molecular pharmacology 63(1): 211-223.