Key Event Title
|Level of Biological Organization|
|thyroid follicular cell|
Key Event Components
|iodide peroxidase activity||thyroid peroxidase||decreased|
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
|AOP Name||Role of event in AOP|
|TPO Inhibition and Altered Neurodevelopment||MolecularInitiatingEvent|
|Thyroid peroxidase- follicular adenoma/carcinoma||MolecularInitiatingEvent|
|TPOi anterior swim bladder||MolecularInitiatingEvent|
|TPO inhib alters metamorphosis||MolecularInitiatingEvent|
|TPO inhibition and impaired fertility||MolecularInitiatingEvent|
|Xenopus laevis||Xenopus laevis||High||NCBI|
|fathead minnow||Pimephales promelas||High||NCBI|
|All life stages||High|
Key Event Description
Thyroperoxidase (TPO) is a heme-containing apical membrane protein within the follicular lumen of thyrocytes that acts as the enzymatic catalyst for thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis. TPO catalyzes several reactions in the thyroid gland, including: the oxidation of iodide; nonspecific iodination of tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin (Tg); and, the coupling of iodotyrosyls to produce Tg-bound monoiodotyrosine (MIT) and diiodotyrosine (DIT) (Divi et al., 1997; Kessler et al., 2008; Ruf et al., 2006; Taurog et al., 1996). The outcome of TPO inhibition is decreased synthesis of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), a decrease in release of these hormones from the gland into circulation, and unless compensated, a consequent decrease in systemic concentrations of T4, and possibly T3. The primary product of TPO-catalyzed TH synthesis is T4 (Taurog et al., 1996; Zoeller et al., 2007) that would be peripherally or centrally deiodinated to T3.
It is important to note that TPO is a complex enzyme and that has two catalytic cycles and is capable of iodinating multiple species (Divi et al., 1997). Alterations in all of these events are not covered by some of the commonly used assays that measure “TPO inhibition” (e.g., guicacol and AmplexUltraRed, see below). Therefore, in the context of this AOP we are using TPO inhibiton not in the classical sense, but instead to refer to the empirical data derived from the assays commonly used assays to investigate environmental chemicals.
Figure 1 below illustrates the enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions mediated by TPO that result in the synthesis of thyroxine (T4) .
Inhibition of TPO can be reversible, with transient interaction between the enzyme and the chemical, or irreversible, whereby suicide substrates permanently inactivate the enzyme. Reversible and irreversible TPO inhibition may be determined by the chemical structure, may be concentration dependent, or may be influenced by other conditions, including the availability of iodine (Doerge and Chang, 2002).
The ontogeny of TPO has been determined using both direct and indirect evidence. Available evidence suggests the 11th to 12th fetal week as the beginning of functional TPO in humans. In rodents, TPO function begins late in the second fetal week, with the first evidence of T4 secretion on gestational day 17 (Remy et al., 1980). Thyroid-specific genes appear in the thyroid gland according to a specific temporal pattern; thyroglobulin (Tg), TPO (Tpo), and TSH receptor (Tshr) genes are expressed by gestational day 14 in rats, and the sodium iodide symporter, NIS (Nis), is expressed by gestational day 16 in rats. Maturation to adult function is thought to occur within a few weeks after parturition in rats and mice, and within the first few months in neonatal humans (Santisteban and Bernal, 2005). Tg is first detected in human fetuses starting at 5th week of gestation and rises throughout gestation (Thorpe-Beeston et al., 1992), but iodine trapping and T4 production does not occur until around 10-12 weeks. Also, the dimerization of Tg, a characteristic of adult TH storage, is not found until much later in human gestation (Pintar, 2000). In rats, Tg immunoreactivity does not appear until day 15 of gestation (Fukiishi et al., 1982; Brown et al., 2000). The vast majority of research and knowledge on Tg is from mammals, although genomic orthologs are known for a variety of other species (Holzer et al., 2016). It is important to note that prior to the onset of fetal thyroid function, TH are still required by the developing fetus which until that time relies solely on maternal sources. Chemical-induced TPO inhibition can affect synthesis in the maternal gland and in the fetal gland.
How It Is Measured or Detected
There are no approved OECD or EPA guideline study protocols for measurement of TPO inhibition.. However, there is an OECD scoping document on identification of chemicals that modulate TH signaling that provides details on a TPO assay (OECD, 2017).
From the early 1960's, microsomal fractions prepared from porcine thyroid glands and isolated porcine follicles were used as a source of TPO for inhibition experiments (Taurog, 2005). Limited information has been published using microsomes from human goiter samples (Vickers et al., 2012) and rat thyroid glands (Paul et al., 2013; 2014; Paul-Friedman et al., 2016).
TPO activity has been measured for decades via indirect assessment by kinetic measurement of the oxidation of guaiacol (Chang & Doerge 2000; Hornung et al., 2010; Schmutzler et al., 2007). This method is a low-throughput assay due to the very rapid kinetics of the guaiacol oxidation reaction. More recently, higher-throughput methods using commercial fluorescent and luminescent substrates with rodent, porcine, and human microsomal TPO have been developed (Vickers et al., 2012; Paul et al., 2013; 2014; Kaczur et al., 1997). This assay substitutes a pre-fluorescent substrate (Amplex UltraRed) for guaiacol, that when incubated with a source of peroxidase and excess hydrogen peroxidase, results in a stable fluorescent product proportional to TPO activity (Vickers et al., 2012). The stability of the fluorescent reaction product allows this assay to be used in a higher throughput format (Paul-Friedman et al., 2016). This approach is appropriate for high-throughput screening but does not elucidate the specific mechanism by which a chemical may inhibit TPO (Paul-Friedman et al., 2016), and as with most in vitro assays, is subject to various sources of assay interference (Thorne et al., 2010).
HPLC has been used to measure of the activity of TPO via formation of the precursors monoiodotyrosine (MIT), diiodotyrosine (DIT), and both T3 and T4, in a reaction mixture containing TPO, or a surrogate enzyme such as lactoperoxidase (Divi & Doerge 1994). The tools and reagents for this method are all available. However, HPLC or other analytical chemistry techniques make this a low throughput assay, depending on the level of automation. A primary advantage of this in vitro method is that it directly informs hypotheses regarding the specific mechanism by which a chemical may impact thyroid hormone synthesis in vitro.
Domain of Applicability
TPO inhibition is a MIE conserved across taxa, with supporting data from experimental models and human clinical testing. This conservation is likely a function of the high degree of protein sequence similarity in the catalytic domain of mammalian peroxidases (Taurog, 1999). Ample data available for human, rat, and porcine TPO inhibition demonstrate qualitative concordance across these species (Schmultzer et al., 2007; Paul et al., 2013; Hornung et al., 2010). A comparison of rat TPO and pig TPO, bovine lactoperoxidase, and human TPO inhibition by genistein demonstrated good qualitative and quantitative (40–66%) inhibition across species, as indicated by quantification of MIT and DIT production (Doerge and Chang, 2002). Ealey et al. (1984) demonstrated peroxidase activity in guinea pig thyroid tissue using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB) as a substrate that is oxidized by the peroxidase to form a brown insoluble reaction product. Formation of this reaction product was inhibited by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole and the TPO inhibitor, methimazole (MMI). A comparative analysis of this action of MMI between rat- and human-derived TPO indicates concordance of qualitative response. Data also suggest an increased quantitative sensitivity to MMI in rat compared to human (Vickers et al., 2012). Paul et al. (2013) tested 12 chemicals using the guaiacol assay using both porcine and rat thyroid microsomes. The authors concluded that there was an excellent qualitative concordance between rat and porcine TPO inhibition, as all chemicals that inhibited TPO in porcine thyroid microsomes also inhibited TPO in rat thyroid microsomes when tested within the same concentration range. In addition, these authors noted a qualitative concordance that ranged from 1.5 to 50-fold differences estimated by relative potency. Similary, Takayama et al. (1986) found a very large species difference in potency for sulfamonomethoxine between cynomologus monkeys and rats.
Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor
Overview for Molecular Initiating Event
There is a wealth of information on the inhibition of TPO by drugs such as MMI and PTU, as well as environmental xenobiotics. In the landmark paper on thyroid disruption by environmental chemicals, Brucker-Davis (1998) identified environmental chemicals that depressed TH synthesis by inhibiting TPO. Hurley (1998) listed TPO as a major target for thyroid tumor inducing pesticides. More recent work has tested over 1000 chemicals using a high-throughput screening assay (Paul-Friedman et al., 2016).
Brown RS, Shalhoub V, Coulter S, Alex S, Joris I, De Vito W, Lian J, Stein GS. Developmental regulation of thyrotropin receptor gene expression in the fetal and neonatal rat thyroid: relation to thyroid morphology and to thyroid-specific gene expression. Endocrinology. 2000 Jan;141(1):340-5.
Brucker-Davis F. 1998. Effects of environmental synthetic chemicals on thyroid function. Thyroid 8:827-856.
Chang, H. C. and D. R. Doerge (2000) Dietary genistein inactivates rat thyroid peroxidase in vivo without an apparent hypothyroid effect. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 168:244-252.
Divi, R. L., & Doerge, D. R. (1994). Mechanism-based inactivation of lactoperoxidase and thyroid peroxidase by resorcinol derivatives. Biochemistry 33(32), 9668–9674.
Divi, R. L., Chang, H. C., & Doerge, D. R. (1997). Anti-Thyroid Isoflavones from Soybean. Biochem. Pharmacol. 54(10), 1087–1096.
Doerge DR, Chang HC. Inactivation of thyroid peroxidase by soy isoflavones, in vitro and in vivo. J Chromatogr B Analy Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Sep 25;777(1-2):269-79.
Ealey PA, Henderson B, Loveridge N.A quantitative study of peroxidase activity in unfixed tissue sections of the guinea-pig thyroid gland. Histochem J. 1984 Feb;16(2):111-22.
Fukiishi Y, Harauchi T, Yoshizaki T, Hasegawa Y, Eguchi Y. Ontogeny of thyroid peroxidase activity in perinatal rats. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1982 101(3):397-402.
Holzer G, Morishita Y, Fini JB, Lorin T, Gillet B, Hughes S, Tohmé M, Deléage G, Demeneix B, Arvan P, Laudet V. Thyroglobulin Represents a Novel Molecular Architecture of Vertebrates. J Biol Chem. 2016 Jun 16.
Hornung, M. W., Degitz, S. J., Korte, L. M., Olson, J. M., Kosian, P. a, Linnum, A. L., & Tietge, J. E. (2010). Inhibition of thyroid hormone release from cultured amphibian thyroid glands by methimazole, 6-propylthiouracil, and perchlorate. Toxicol Sci 118(1), 42–51.
Hurley PM. 1998. Mode of carcinogenic action of pesticides inducing thyroid follicular cell tumors in rodents. Environ Health Perspect 106:437-445.
Kaczur, V., Vereb, G., Molnár, I., Krajczár, G., Kiss, E., Farid, N. R., & Balázs, C. (1997). Effect of anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies on TPO activity measured by chemiluminescence assay. Clin. Chem 43(8 Pt 1), 1392–6.
Kessler, J., Obinger, C., Eales, G., 2008. Factors influencing the study of peroxidase- generated iodine species and implications for thyroglobulin synthesis. Thyroid 18, 769–774.
OECD (2017) New Scoping Document on in vitro and ex vivo Assays for the Identification of Modulators of Thyroid Hormone Signalling. Series on Testing and Assessment. No. 207. ISSN: 20777876 (online) http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/20777876
Paul KB, Hedge JM, Macherla C, Filer DL, Burgess E, Simmons SO, Crofton KM, Hornung MW. Cross-species analysis of thyroperoxidase inhibition by xenobiotics demonstrates conservation of response between pig and rat. Toxicology. 2013. 312:97-107
Paul, K.B., Hedge, J.M., Rotroff, D.M., Hornung, M.W., Crofton, K.M., Simmons, S.O. 2014. Development of a thyroperoxidase inhibition assay for high-throughput screening. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 27(3), 387-399.
Paul-Friedman K, Watt ED, Hornung MW, Hedge JM, Judson RS, Crofton KM, Houck KA, Simmons SO. 2016. Tiered High-Throughput Screening Approach to Identify Thyroperoxidase Inhibitors Within the ToxCast Phase I and II Chemical Libraries. Toxicol Sci. 151:160-80.
Pintar, J.E. (2000) Normal development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. In. Werner & Ingbar’s The Thyroid. (8th ed), Braverman. L.E. and Utiger, R.D. (eds) Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia.
Remy L, Michel-Bechet M, Athouel-Haon AM, Magre S. Critical study of endogenous peroxidase activity: its role in the morphofunctional setting of the thyroid follicle in the rat fetus. Acta Histochem. 1980;67(2):159-72.
Ruf, J., & Carayon, P. (2006). Structural and functional aspects of thyroid peroxidase. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 445(2), 269–77.
Santisteban P, Bernal J. Thyroid development and effect on the nervous system. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2005 Aug;6(3):217-28.
Schmutzler, C., Bacinski, A., Gotthardt, I., Huhne, K., Ambrugger, P., Klammer, H., Schlecht, C., Hoang-Vu, C., Gruters, A., Wuttke, W., Jarry, H., Kohrle, J., 2007a. The ultraviolet filter benzophenone 2 interferes with the thyroid hormone axis in rats and is a potent in vitro inhibitor of human recombinant thyroid peroxidase. Endocrinology 148, 2835–2844.
Taurog A. 2005. Hormone synthesis. In: Werner and Ingbar’s The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text (Braverman LE, Utiger RD, eds). Philadelphia:Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 47–81
Taurog, a, Dorris, M. L., & Doerge, D. R. (1996). Mechanism of simultaneous iodination and coupling catalyzed by thyroid peroxidase. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Taurog A. Molecular evolution of thyroid peroxidase. Biochimie. 1999 May;81(5):557-62
Takayama S, Aihara K, Onodera T, Akimoto T. Antithyroid effects of propylthiouracil and sulfamonomethoxine in rats and monkeys. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1986 Feb;82(2):191-9.
Thorne N, Auld DS, Inglese J. Apparent activity in high-throughput screening: origins of compound-dependent assay interference. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2010 Jun;14(3):315-24.
Thorpe-Beeston JG, Nicolaides KH, McGregor AM. Fetal thyroid function. Thyroid. 1992 Fall;2(3):207-17. Review.
Vickers AE, Heale J, Sinclair JR, Morris S, Rowe JM, Fisher RL. Thyroid organotypic rat and human cultures used to investigate drug effects on thyroid function, hormone synthesis and release pathways. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012 Apr 1;260(1):81-8.
Zoeller, R. T., Tan, S. W., & Tyl, R. W. (2007). General background on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 37(1-2), 11–53.