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Event: 122

Key Event Title

The KE title should describe a discrete biological change that can be measured. It should generally define the biological object or process being measured and whether it is increased, decreased, or otherwise definably altered relative to a control state. For example “enzyme activity, decreased”, “hormone concentration, increased”, or “growth rate, decreased”, where the specific enzyme or hormone being measured is defined. More help

Activation, Glucocorticoid Receptor

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. The short name should be less than 80 characters in length. More help
Activation, Glucocorticoid Receptor

Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. Note, KEs should be defined within a particular level of biological organization. Only KERs should be used to transition from one level of organization to another. Selection of the level of biological organization defines which structured terms will be available to select when defining the Event Components (below). More help
Level of Biological Organization
Molecular

Cell term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help
Cell term
eukaryotic cell

Organ term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help

Key Event Components

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.Because one of the aims of the AOP-KB is to facilitate de facto construction of AOP networks through the use of shared KE and KER elements, authors are also asked to define their KEs using a set of structured ontology terms (Event Components). In the absence of structured terms, the same KE can readily be defined using a number of synonymous titles (read by a computer as character strings). In order to make these synonymous KEs more machine-readable, KEs should also be defined by one or more “event components” consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 22 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; See List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling). The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signalling by that receptor).Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description. To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons. If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests. Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add. More help
Process Object Action
glucocorticoid receptor activity glucocorticoid receptor increased

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
Glucocorticoid Receptor, Activation MolecularInitiatingEvent Carlie LaLone (send email) Open for comment. Do not cite
Network of SSRIs KeyEvent Lyle Burgoon (send email) Open for adoption
GR activation leading to hepatic steatosis MolecularInitiatingEvent Chander K. Negi (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
GR Agonism Leading to Impaired Fin Regeneration MolecularInitiatingEvent Alexander Cole (send email) Open for citation & comment

Stressors

This is a structured field used to identify specific agents (generally chemicals) that can trigger the KE. Stressors identified in this field will be linked to the KE in a machine-readable manner, such that, for example, a stressor search would identify this as an event the stressor can trigger. NOTE: intermediate or downstream KEs in one AOP may function as MIEs in other AOPs, meaning that stressor information may be added to the KE description, even if it is a downstream KE in the pathway currently under development.Information concerning the stressors that may trigger an MIE can be defined using a combination of structured and unstructured (free-text) fields. For example, structured fields may be used to indicate specific chemicals for which there is evidence of an interaction relevant to this MIE. By linking the KE description to a structured chemical name, it will be increasingly possible to link the MIE to other sources of chemical data and information, enhancing searchability and inter-operability among different data-sources and knowledgebases. The free-text section “Evidence for perturbation of this MIE by stressor” can be used both to identify the supporting evidence for specific stressors triggering the MIE as well as to define broad chemical categories or other properties that classify the stressors able to trigger the MIE for which specific structured terms may not exist. More help

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) can be selected from an ontology. In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help

Life Stages

The structured ontology terms for life-stage are more comprehensive than those for taxa, but may still require further description/development and explanation in the free text section. More help
Life stage Evidence
All life stages Moderate

Sex Applicability

The authors must select from one of the following: Male, female, mixed, asexual, third gender, hermaphrodite, or unspecific. More help
Term Evidence
Mixed Moderate

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. For example, the biological state being measured could be the activity of an enzyme, the expression of a gene or abundance of an mRNA transcript, the concentration of a hormone or protein, neuronal activity, heart rate, etc. The biological compartment may be a particular cell type, tissue, organ, fluid (e.g., plasma, cerebrospinal fluid), etc. The role in the biology could describe the reaction that an enzyme catalyses and the role of that reaction within a given metabolic pathway; the protein that a gene or mRNA transcript codes for and the function of that protein; the function of a hormone in a given target tissue, physiological function of an organ, etc. Careful attention should be taken to avoid reference to other KEs, KERs or AOPs. Only describe this KE as a single isolated measurable event/state. This will ensure that the KE is modular and can be used by other AOPs, thereby facilitating construction of AOP networks. More help

Site of action: The molecular site of action is the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The GR is a steroid receptor belonging to the nuclear receptor (NR) family of ligand-dependent transcription factors. In the absence of a ligand, the GR is transcriptionally inactive in the cytoplasm. Responses at the macromolecular level: Binding of a hormonal ligand enables GR to translocate into the nucleas where it binds to genomic GC-response elements (GRE) and regulates trascription of associated genes.

How It Is Measured or Detected

One of the primary considerations in evaluating AOPs is the relevance and reliability of the methods with which the KEs can be measured. The aim of this section of the KE description is not to provide detailed protocols, but rather to capture, in a sentence or two, per method, the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements. Methods that can be used to detect or measure the biological state represented in the KE should be briefly described and/or cited. These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA).Key considerations regarding scientific confidence in the measurement approach include whether the assay is fit for purpose, whether it provides a direct or indirect measure of the biological state in question, whether it is repeatable and reproducible, and the extent to which it is accepted in the scientific and/or regulatory community. Information can be obtained from the OECD Test Guidelines website and the EURL ECVAM Database Service on Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation (DB-ALM). ?

Glucocorticoid activation can be measured in a number of assays as stated by the EPA’s comptox dashboard (https://comptox.epa.gov/dashboard/assay_endpoints?search=NR3C1).

Receptor Transactivation Assays:

  • Indigo Biosciences Human GR reporter assay system. Product Family IB0020 GR
  • Androgen receptor assays using adenoviral transduction of MMTV-luc reporter and/or hAR for endocrine screening of surface water samples (Hartig et al, 2002).

In addition to invitro assay, induction of glucocorticoid receptor-regulated genes such as annexin a1b, gilz, glula, and fkbp1 are also indicative of GR activation in vivo (Garland et al., 2019).

Domain of Applicability

This free text section should be used to elaborate on the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided). While structured terms may be selected to define the taxonomic, life stage and sex applicability (see structured applicability terms, above) of the KE, the structured terms may not adequately reflect or capture the overall biological applicability domain (particularly with regard to taxa). Likewise, the structured terms do not provide an explanation or rationale for the selection. The free-text section on evidence for taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability can be used to elaborate on why the specific structured terms were selected, and provide supporting references and background information.  More help

Glucocorticoid receptor is fairly conserved across vertebrates. Fish however, have two copies of the gene resulting in two different receptors. Although conserved across species, the sensitivity of the glucocorticoid receptor varies based on species (Solte et al., 2006).

Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor

Overview for Molecular Initiating Event

When a specific MIE can be defined (i.e., the molecular target and nature of interaction is known), in addition to describing the biological state associated with the MIE, how it can be measured, and its taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability, it is useful to list stressors known to trigger the MIE and provide evidence supporting that initiation. This will often be a list of prototypical compounds demonstrated to interact with the target molecule in the manner detailed in the MIE description to initiate a given pathway (e.g., 2,3,7,8-TCDD as a prototypical AhR agonist; 17α-ethynyl estradiol as a prototypical ER agonist). Depending on the information available, this could also refer to chemical categories (i.e., groups of chemicals with defined structural features known to trigger the MIE). Known stressors should be included in the MIE description, but it is not expected to include a comprehensive list. Rather initially, stressors identified will be exemplary and the stressor list will be expanded over time. For more information on MIE, please see pages 32-33 in the User Handbook.

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide (https://www.oecd.org/about/publishing/OECD-Style-Guide-Third-Edition.pdf) (OECD, 2015). More help

Garland MA, Sengupta S, Mathew LK, Truong L, Jong ED, Piersma AH, Du JL, Tanguay RL. 2019. Glucocorticoid receptor-dependent induction of cripto-1 (one-eyed pinhead) inhibits zebrafish caudal fin regeneration. Toxicology Reports 6:529-537. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2019.05.013

Solte EH, Lidy Verberg van Kemenade BM, Savelkoul FJ, Flik G. 2006. Evolution of glucocorticoid receptors with different glucocorticoid sensitivity. Journal of Endocrinology 190:17-28. DOI: 10.1677/joe.1.06703

Medlock Kakaley EK, Blackwell BR, Cardon MC, Conley JM, Evans N, Feifarek DJ, Furlong ET, Glassmeyer ST, Gray LE Jr, Hartig PC, Kolpin DW, Mills MA, Rosenblum L, Villeneuve DL, Wilson VS. De Facto Water Reuse: Bioassay suite approach delivers depth and breadth in endocrine active compound detection. Sci Total Environ. 2020 Jan 10;699:134297. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134297. Epub 2019 Sep 4. PubMed PMID: 31683213.

Conley JM, Lambright CS, Evans N, Strynar MJ, McCord J, McIntyre BS, Travlos GS, Cardon MC, Medlock-Kakaley E, Hartig PC, Wilson VS, Gray LE Jr. Adverse Maternal, Fetal, and Postnatal Effects of Hexafluoropropylene Oxide Dimer Acid (GenX) from Oral Gestational Exposure in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Environ Health Perspect. 2019 Mar;127(3):37008. doi: 10.1289/EHP4372. PubMed PMID: 30920876;PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6768323.

Medlock Kakaley E, Cardon MC, Gray LE, Hartig PC, Wilson VS. Generalized Concentration Addition Model Predicts Glucocorticoid Activity Bioassay Responses to Environmentally Detected Receptor-Ligand Mixtures. Toxicol Sci. 2019 Mar 1;168(1):252-263. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfy290. PubMed PMID: 30535411; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6709530. 

Conley JM, Evans N, Cardon MC, Rosenblum L, Iwanowicz LR, Hartig PC, Schenck KM, Bradley PM, Wilson VS. Occurrence and In Vitro Bioactivity of Estrogen, Androgen, and Glucocorticoid Compounds in a Nationwide Screen of United States Stream Waters. Environ Sci Technol. 2017 May 2;51(9):4781-4791. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b06515. Epub 2017 Apr 12. PubMed PMID: 28401766. 

Hartig PC, Bobseine KL, Britt BH, Cardon MC, Lambright CR, Wilson VS, Gray LE Jr. Development of two androgen receptor assays using adenoviral transduction of MMTV-luc reporter and/or hAR for endocrine screening. Toxicol Sci. 2002 Mar;66(1):82-90. PubMed PMID: 11861975.