Upstream eventThyroperoxidase, Inhibition
TH synthesis, Decreased
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding|
|Inhibition of Thyroperoxidase and Subsequent Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Mammals||adjacent||High||Low|
|Thyroperoxidase inhibition leading to reduced young of year survival via anterior swim bladder inflation||adjacent|
|Inhibition of thyroid peroxidase leading to impaired fertility in fish||adjacent|
|Xenopus laevis||Xenopus laevis||High||NCBI|
Life Stage Applicability
|All life stages||High|
Key Event Relationship Description
Thyroperoxidase (TPO) is a heme-containing apical membrane protein within the follicular lumen of thyrocytes that acts as the enzymatic catalyst for thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis (Taurog, 2005). Two commonly used reference chemicals, propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole (MMI), are drugs that inhibit the ability of TPO to: a) activate iodine and transfer it to thyroglobulin (Tg) (Davidson et al., 1978); and, b) couple thyroglobulin (Tg)-bound iodotyrosyls to produce Tg-bound thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) (Taurog, 2005).
Evidence Supporting this KER
The weight of evidence supporting a direct linkage between the MIE, TPO inhibition, and the KE of decreased TH synthesis, is strong and supported by more than three decades of research in animals, including humans (Cooper et al., 1982; Cooper et al.,1983; Divi and Doerge, 1994).
The biological plausibility for this KER is rated Strong. TPO is the only enzyme capable of de novo systhesis of TH. TPO catalyzes several reactions, including the oxidation of iodide, nonspecific iodination of tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin (Tg) to form monoiodotyrosyl (MIT) or diiodotyrosyl (DIT) residues, and the coupling of these Tg-bound iodotyrosyls to produce Tg-bound T3 and T4 (Divi and Doerge, 1994; Kessler et al., 2008; Ruf et al., 2006; Taurog et al., 1996, 2005). Therefore, inhibition of TPO activity is widely accepted to directly impact TH synthesis.
Empirical support for this KER is strong. There are several papers that have measured alterations in TPO and subsequent effects on TH synthesisTaurog et al. (1996) showed decreased guicaol activity, decreased bound I125, and subsequent decreases in newly formed T3 and T4 per molecule of Tg, following exposure to PTU, MMI and some antibiotics. Following in vivo exposure to PTU in rats (Cooper et al., 1982; 1983), there are concentration and time-dependent decreases in thyroid protein bound iodine and serum T4 and T3 that recovered one month after cessation of PTU exposure. In addition, measures of thyroidal iodine content were highly correlated with intra-thyroidal PTU concentration. Vickers et al. (2012) demonstrated dose- and time- dependent inhibition of TPO activity in both human and rat thyroid homogenates exposed to MMI. Tietge et al (2010) recently showed decreases in thyroidal T4 following MMI exposure in Xenopus. Doerge et al (1998) showed that a tryphenylmethane dye, malachite green, inhibited TPO and lowered thyroxine production. A recent paper used a series of benzothiazoles and showed TPO inhibition (guicaol assay) and inhibition of TSH stimulated thyroxine release from Xenopus thyroid gland explant cultures (Hornung et al., 2015).
Temporal Evidence: The temporal nature of this KER is applicable to all life stages, including development (Seed et al., 2005). The impact of decreased TPO activity on thyroidal hormone synthesis is similar across all ages. Good evidence for the temporal relationship of the KER comes from thyroid system modeling (e.g., Degon et al., 2008; Fisher et al., 2013) using data using data from studies of iodine deficiency and chemicals that inhibit NIS. In addition, there is ample evidence of the temporal impacts of TPO inhibition on TH synthesis, using ex vivo and in vitro measures that demonstrate the time course of inhibition following chemical exposures, including some data from human thyroid microsomes and ex vivo thyroid slices (Vickers et al., 2012). Future work is needed that measures both TPO inhibition and TH production during development.
Dose-Response Evidence: Dose-response data is available from a number of studies that correlate TPO inhibition with decreased TH production measured using a variety of endpoints including iodine organification (e.g., Taurog et al., 1996), inhibition of guicaol oxidation in thyroid microsomes (e.g., Doerge and Chang, 2002), and direct measure of thyroid gland T4 concentrations (e.g., Hornung et al., 2015). However, there is a lack of dose-response data from developmental studies showing direct linkages from TPO inhibition to thyroidal TH synthesis.
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
While it is clear that TPO inhibition will lead to altered hormone synthesis, there is a need for data that will inform quantitative modeling of the relationship between TPO inhibition and the magnitude of effects on thyroid hormone synthesis.
It is important to note that data from studies on genistein highlight this uncertainty. Doerge and colleagues have demonstrated that for this compound up to 80% TPO inhibition did not result in decreased serum T4 in rats (Doerge and Chang, 2002). This is not consistent with other prototypical TPO inhibitors (e.g., PTU, MMI). It remains to be determined, if for some presently unknown reason, that genistein is an outlier or not. This again points to the need for quantitative modeling of the relationship between TPO inhibtion and downstream KEs.
Quantitative Understanding of the Linkage
There are only a limited number of studies where both TPO inhibition and iodine organification have been measured in vivo, and there are not enough data available to make any definitive quantitative correlations. One in vivo study in rats exposed to the TPO inhibitor genistein found no in vivo impact on serum thyroid hormone concentrations, even when TPO was inhibited up to 80% (Chang and Doerge, 2000).
Known modulating factors
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
Inhibition of TPO activity is widely accepted to directly impact TH synthesis. This is true for both rats and humans, as well as some fishes, frogs and birds. Most of the data supporting a causative relationship between TPO inhibition and altered TH synthesis is derived from animal studies, in vitro thyroid microsomes from rats or pigs, and a limited number of human ex vivo (Nagasaka and Hidaka, 1976; Vickers et al., 2012) and clinical studies. There are data to support that gene mutations in TPO result in congenital hypothyroidism, underscoring the essential role of TPO in human thyroid hormone synthesis.
Chang HC, Doerge DR. Dietary genistein inactivates rat thyroid peroxidase in vivo without an apparent hypothyroid effect. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 168:244–252 (2000).
Cooper DS, Kieffer JD, Halpern R, Saxe V, Mover H, Maloof F, Ridgway EC (1983) Propylthiouracil (PTU) pharmacology in the rat. II. Effects of PTU on thyroid function. Endocrinology 113:921-928.
Cooper DS, Saxe VC, Meskell M, Maloof F, Ridgway EC. Acute effects of propylthiouracil (PTU) on thyroidal iodide organification and peripheral iodothyronine deiodination: correlation with serum PTU levels measured by radioimmunoassay. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1982 54(1):101-7.
Davidson, B., Soodak, M., Neary, J.T., Strout, H.V., and Kieffer, J.D. (1978). The irreversible inactivation of thyroid peroxidase by methylmercaptoimidazole, thiouracil, and propylthiouracil in vitro and its relationship to in vivo findings. Endocrinology 103:871–882.
Divi, R. L., and Doerge, D. R. (1994). Mechanism-based inactivation of lactoperoxidase and thyroid peroxidase by resorcinol derivatives. Biochemistry 33(32), 9668-74.
Doerge DR, Chang HC, Divi RL, Churchwell Mechanism for inhibition of thyroid peroxidase by leucomalachite green. Chem Res Toxicol. 1998 11(9):1098-104.
Doerge DR, Chang HC. Inactivation of thyroid peroxidase by soy isoflavones, in vitro and in vivo. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Sep 25;777(1-2):269-79
Hornung MW, Kosian PA, Haselman JT, Korte JJ, Challis K, Macherla C, Nevalainen E, Degitz SJ. In Vitro, Ex Vivo, and In Vivo Determination of Thyroid Hormone Modulating Activity of Benzothiazoles.Toxicol Sci. 2015 146(2):254-64.
Kessler, J., Obinger, C., and Eales, G. (2008). Factors influencing the study of peroxidase-generated iodine species and implications for thyroglobulin synthesis. Thyroid 18(7), 769-74, 10.1089/thy.2007.0310.
Nagasaka, A., and Hidaka, H. (1976). Effect of antithyroid agents 6-propyl-2-thiouracil and 1-mehtyl-2-mercaptoimidazole on human thyroid iodine peroxidase. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 43:152–158.
Ruf, J., and Carayon, P. (2006). Structural and functional aspects of thyroid peroxidase. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 445(2), 269-77, 10.1016/j.abb.2005.06.023.
Taurog, A., Dorris, M. L., and Doerge, D. R. (1996). Mechanism of simultaneous iodination and coupling catalyzed by thyroid peroxidase. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 330(1), 24-32,
Taurog A. 2005. Hormone synthesis. In: Werner and Ingbar’s The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text (Braverman LE, Utiger RD, eds). Philadelphia:Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 47–81.
Tietge JE, Butterworth BC, Haselman JT, Holcombe GW, Hornung MW, Korte JJ, Kosian PA, Wolfe M, Degitz SJ. Early temporal effects of three thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitors in Xenopus laevis. Aquat Toxicol. 2010 98(1):44-50
Vickers AE, Heale J, Sinclair JR, Morris S, Rowe JM, Fisher RL. Thyroid organotypic rat and human cultures used to investigate drug effects on thyroid function, hormone synthesis and release pathways. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012 260(1):81-8.