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Relationship: 309


The title of the KER should clearly define the two KEs being considered and the sequential relationship between them (i.e., which is upstream and which is downstream). Consequently all KER titles take the form “upstream KE leads to downstream KE”.  More help

Thyroperoxidase, Inhibition leads to TH synthesis, Decreased

Upstream event
Upstream event in the Key Event Relationship. On the KER page, clicking on the Event name under Upstream Relationship will bring the user to that individual KE page. More help
Downstream event
Downstream event in the Key Event Relationship. On the KER page, clicking on the Event name under Upstream Relationship will bring the user to that individual KE page. More help

Key Event Relationship Overview

The utility of AOPs for regulatory application is defined, to a large extent, by the confidence and precision with which they facilitate extrapolation of data measured at low levels of biological organisation to predicted outcomes at higher levels of organisation and the extent to which they can link biological effect measurements to their specific causes. Within the AOP framework, the predictive relationships that facilitate extrapolation are represented by the KERs. Consequently, the overall WoE for an AOP is a reflection in part, of the level of confidence in the underlying series of KERs it encompasses. Therefore, describing the KERs in an AOP involves assembling and organising the types of information and evidence that defines the scientific basis for inferring the probable change in, or state of, a downstream KE from the known or measured state of an upstream KE. More help

AOPs Referencing Relationship

This table is automatically generated upon addition of a KER to an AOP. All of the AOPs that are linked to this KER will automatically be listed in this subsection. Clicking on the name of the AOP in the table will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Adjacency Weight of Evidence Quantitative Understanding Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
Inhibition of Thyroperoxidase and Subsequent Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Mammals adjacent High Low Kevin Crofton (send email) Open for citation & comment WPHA/WNT Endorsed
Thyroperoxidase inhibition leading to increased mortality via reduced anterior swim bladder inflation adjacent High Low Dries Knapen (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome EAGMST Approved
Inhibition of thyroid peroxidase leading to impaired fertility in fish adjacent High High June-Woo Park (send email) Open for comment. Do not cite Under Development
Thyroperoxidase inhibition leading to altered amphibian metamorphosis adjacent High Moderate Jonathan Haselman (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
Thyroperoxidase inhibition leading to altered visual function via altered retinal layer structure adjacent High Moderate Lucia Vergauwen (send email) Open for comment. Do not cite
Thyroperoxidase inhibition leading to altered visual function via decreased eye size adjacent Lucia Vergauwen (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
Thyroperoxidase inhibition leading to altered visual function via altered photoreceptor patterning adjacent Lucia Vergauwen (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
Inhibition of thyroid peroxidase leading to follicular cell adenomas and carcinomas (in rat and mouse) adjacent Charles Wood (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome

Taxonomic Applicability

Select one or more structured terms that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KER. In general, this will be dictated by the more restrictive of the two KEs being linked together by the KER. Authors can indicate the relevant taxa for this KER in this subsection. The process is similar to what is described for KEs (see pages 30-31 and 37-38 of User Handbook) More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
human Homo sapiens High NCBI
rat Rattus norvegicus High NCBI
Xenopus laevis Xenopus laevis High NCBI
zebrafish Danio rerio High NCBI
fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Low NCBI

Sex Applicability

Authors can indicate the relevant sex for this KER in this subsection. The process is similar to what is described for KEs (see pages 31-32 of the User Handbook). More help
Sex Evidence
Male High
Female High

Life Stage Applicability

Authors can indicate the relevant life stage for this KER in this subsection. The process is similar to what is described for KEs (see pages 31-32 of User Handbook). More help
Term Evidence
All life stages High

Key Event Relationship Description

Provide a brief, descriptive summation of the KER. While the title itself is fairly descriptive, this section can provide details that aren’t inherent in the description of the KEs themselves (see page 39 of the User Handbook). This description section can be viewed as providing the increased specificity in the nature of upstream perturbation (KEupstream) that leads to a particular downstream perturbation (KEdownstream), while allowing the KE descriptions to remain generalised so they can be linked to different AOPs. The description is also intended to provide a concise overview for readers who may want a brief summation, without needing to read through the detailed support for the relationship (covered below). Careful attention should be taken to avoid reference to other KEs that are not part of this KER, other KERs or other AOPs. This will ensure that the KER is modular and can be used by other AOPs. More help

Thyroperoxidase (TPO) is a heme-containing apical membrane protein within the follicular lumen of thyrocytes that acts as the enzymatic catalyst for thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis (Taurog, 2005) across vertebrates. Two commonly used reference chemicals, propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole (MMI), are drugs that inhibit the ability of TPO to: a) activate iodine and transfer it to thyroglobulin (Tg) (Davidson et al., 1978); and, b) couple thyroglobulin (Tg)-bound iodotyrosyls to produce Tg-bound thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) (Taurog, 2005).

Evidence Supporting this KER

Assembly and description of the scientific evidence supporting KERs in an AOP is an important step in the AOP development process that sets the stage for overall assessment of the AOP (see pages 49-56 of the User Handbook). To do this, biological plausibility, empirical support, and the current quantitative understanding of the KER are evaluated with regard to the predictive relationships/associations between defined pairs of KEs as a basis for considering WoE (page 55 of User Handbook). In addition, uncertainties and inconsistencies are considered. More help

The weight of evidence supporting a direct linkage between the MIE, TPO inhibition, and the KE of decreased TH synthesis, is strong and supported by more than three decades of research in animals, including humans (Cooper et al., 1982; Cooper et al.,1983; Divi and Doerge, 1994).

Biological Plausibility
Define, in free text, the biological rationale for a connection between KEupstream and KEdownstream. What are the structural or functional relationships between the KEs? For example, there is a functional relationship between an enzyme’s activity and the product of a reaction it catalyses. Supporting references should be included. However, it is recognised that there may be cases where the biological relationship between two KEs is very well established, to the extent that it is widely accepted and consistently supported by so much literature that it is unnecessary and impractical to cite the relevant primary literature. Citation of review articles or other secondary sources, like text books, may be reasonable in such cases. The primary intent is to provide scientifically credible support for the structural and/or functional relationship between the pair of KEs if one is known. The description of biological plausibility can also incorporate additional mechanistic details that help inform the relationship between KEs, this is useful when it is not practical/pragmatic to represent these details as separate KEs due to the difficulty or relative infrequency with which it is likely to be measured (see page 40 of the User Handbook for further information).   More help

The biological plausibility for this KER is rated Strong. TPO is the only enzyme capable of de novo systhesis of TH. TPO catalyzes several reactions, including the oxidation of iodide, nonspecific iodination of tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin (Tg) to form monoiodotyrosyl (MIT) or diiodotyrosyl (DIT) residues, and the coupling of these Tg-bound iodotyrosyls to produce Tg-bound T3 and T4 (Divi and Doerge, 1994; Kessler et al., 2008; Ruf et al., 2006; Taurog et al., 1996, 2005). Therefore, inhibition of TPO activity is widely accepted to directly impact TH synthesis.

Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
In addition to outlining the evidence supporting a particular linkage, it is also important to identify inconsistencies or uncertainties in the relationship. Additionally, while there are expected patterns of concordance that support a causal linkage between the KEs in the pair, it is also helpful to identify experimental details that may explain apparent deviations from the expected patterns of concordance. Identification of uncertainties and inconsistencies contribute to evaluation of the overall WoE supporting the AOPs that contain a given KER and to the identification of research gaps that warrant investigation (seep pages 41-42 of the User Handbook).Given that AOPs are intended to support regulatory applications, AOP developers should focus on those inconsistencies or gaps that would have a direct bearing or impact on the confidence in the KER and its use as a basis for inference or extrapolation in a regulatory setting. Uncertainties that may be of academic interest but would have little impact on regulatory application don’t need to be described. In general, this section details evidence that may raise questions regarding the overall validity and predictive utility of the KER (including consideration of both biological plausibility and empirical support). It also contributes along with several other elements to the overall evaluation of the WoE for the KER (see Section 4 of the User Handbook).  More help

While it is clear that TPO inhibition will lead to altered hormone synthesis, there is a need for data that will inform quantitative modeling of the relationship between TPO inhibition and the magnitude of effects on thyroid hormone synthesis.

Data from studies on genistein highlight this uncertainty. Doerge and colleagues have demonstrated that for this compound up to 80% TPO inhibition did not result in decreased serum T4 in rats (Doerge and Chang, 2002). This is not consistent with other prototypical TPO inhibitors (e.g., PTU, MMI). Genistein is however a well-known phytoestrogen and the observed inconsistency may be the result of feedback mechanisms resulting from its estrogenic effect.

Response-response Relationship
This subsection should be used to define sources of data that define the response-response relationships between the KEs. In particular, information regarding the general form of the relationship (e.g., linear, exponential, sigmoidal, threshold, etc.) should be captured if possible. If there are specific mathematical functions or computational models relevant to the KER in question that have been defined, those should also be cited and/or described where possible, along with information concerning the approximate range of certainty with which the state of the KEdownstream can be predicted based on the measured state of the KEupstream (i.e., can it be predicted within a factor of two, or within three orders of magnitude?). For example, a regression equation may reasonably describe the response-response relationship between the two KERs, but that relationship may have only been validated/tested in a single species under steady state exposure conditions. Those types of details would be useful to capture.  More help

There are only a limited number of studies where both TPO inhibition and iodine organification have been measured in vivo, and there are not enough data available to make any definitive quantitative correlations. One in vivo study in rats exposed to the TPO inhibitor genistein found no in vivo impact on serum thyroid hormone concentrations, even when TPO was inhibited up to 80% (Chang and Doerge, 2000). Genistein is however a well-known phytoestrogen and the observed inconsistency may be the result of feedback mechanisms resulting from its estrogenic effect.

Given that this is an MIE to KE relationship, there is only one response to evaluate in the relationship. Decreased TH synthesis, as measured by responses of iodinated species in the thyroid gland, is the result of TPO inhibition, which cannot be measured directly in vivo.

This sub-section should be used to provide information regarding the approximate time-scale of the changes in KEdownstream relative to changes in KEupstream (i.e., do effects on KEdownstream lag those on KEupstream by seconds, minutes, hours, or days?). This can be useful information both in terms of modelling the KER, as well as for analyzing the critical or dominant paths through an AOP network (e.g., identification of an AO that could kill an organism in a matter of hours will generally be of higher priority than other potential AOs that take weeks or months to develop). Identification of time-scale can also aid the assessment of temporal concordance. For example, for a KER that operates on a time-scale of days, measurement of both KEs after just hours of exposure in a short-term experiment could lead to incorrect conclusions regarding dose-response or temporal concordance if the time-scale of the upstream to downstream transition was not considered. More help

In vivo, evaluations of TPO inhibition are limited to evaluation of the iodinated species, or products of TPO activity, present in the thyroid gland at a particular time. However, as stated previously, any measurable response in these iodinated species is not a discreet assessment of TPO activity given that the gland maintains storage of hormone in the follicular lumen space and any alteration of TPO activity would be detected once the stores begin to be depleted. In Xenopus laevis, Haselman et al. (2020) showed a decrease in thyroidal iodinated species after only 2 days of exposure to potent TPO inhibitor MMI during thyroid-mediated metamorphosis and within 4 days for PTU and MBT, both model TPO inhibitors. In zebrafish, Walter et al. (2019) reported a similar time frame, namely a decrease in T4 levels at 72 hpf after starting the exposure to PTU at 0-2 hpf. It should be noted that the time-scale is probably depending on the developmental stage and whether the embryo is capable of thyroid hormone synthesis, rather than on the exposure duration.

Known modulating factors
This sub-section presents information regarding modulating factors/variables known to alter the shape of the response-response function that describes the quantitative relationship between the two KEs (for example, an iodine deficient diet causes a significant increase in the slope of the relationship; a particular genotype doubles the sensitivity of KEdownstream to changes in KEupstream). Information on these known modulating factors should be listed in this subsection, along with relevant information regarding the manner in which the modulating factor can be expected to alter the relationship (if known). Note, this section should focus on those modulating factors for which solid evidence supported by relevant data and literature is available. It should NOT list all possible/plausible modulating factors. In this regard, it is useful to bear in mind that many risk assessments conducted through conventional apical guideline testing-based approaches generally consider few if any modulating factors. More help

Iodine availability will impact the ability of TPO to iodinate tyrosine residues on thyroglobulin. Iodine availability to TPO can be impacted a number of ways. First, environmental availability of iodine can vary greatly depending on whether and how much iodine exists in surface waters for aquatic organisms (gill respirators) and in the diets of both terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Second, somewhat regardless of iodine availability through environmental uptake (i.e., barring extremely high iodine exposure), iodine is actively transported into the thyroid follicular cell from the blood via sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), which has been shown to be susceptible to inhibition by, for example, perchlorate. As such, iodine availability to TPO is mediated by functional NIS. Finally, iodine is not fully available to TPO on the apical surface of the thyroid follicular cell until it is transported through the apical membrane by pendrin, an anion exchange protein - mutations or inhibition of pendrin could affect iodine availability to TPO.

Hydrogen peroxide is also needed by TPO to mediate the oxidation of iodide, which is produced locally by dual oxidase (DUOX). A mutation or inhibition of DUOX will impact local production of H2O2 leading to lower oxidizing potential of TPO and less organification of iodide.  

Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
This subsection should define whether there are known positive or negative feedback mechanisms involved and what is understood about their time-course and homeostatic limits? In some cases where feedback processes are measurable and causally linked to the outcome, they should be represented as KEs. However, in most cases these features are expected to predominantly influence the shape of the response-response, time-course, behaviours between selected KEs. For example, if a feedback loop acts as compensatory mechanism that aims to restore homeostasis following initial perturbation of a KE, the feedback loop will directly shape the response-response relationship between the KERs. Given interest in formally identifying these positive or negative feedback, it is recommended that a graphical annotation (page 44) indicating a positive or negative feedback loop is involved in a particular upstream to downstream KE transition (KER) be added to the graphical representation, and that details be provided in this subsection of the KER description (see pages 44-45 of the User Handbook).  More help

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) released from the pituitary positively regulates the synthesis and release of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland. As such, when TPO is inhibited and thyroid hormone synthesis is decreased, lower systemic levels of hormone cause feedback from the pituitary via TSH to upregulate a number of processes in the thyroid gland as a means of compensation, including (but not limited to) enhanced gene expression of NIS and thyrocyte cell proliferation (Tietge et al., 2010; Haselman et al., 2020).  

Domain of Applicability

As for the KEs, there is also a free-text section of the KER description that the developer can use to explain his/her rationale for the structured terms selected with regard to taxonomic, life stage, or sex applicability, or provide a more generalizable or nuanced description of the applicability domain than may be feasible using standardized terms. More help

Taxonomic: This KER is plausibly applicable across vertebrates. Inhibition of TPO activity is widely accepted to directly impact TH synthesis. This is true for both rats and humans, as well as some fishes, frogs and birds. Most of the data supporting a causative relationship between TPO inhibition and altered TH synthesis is derived from animal studies, in vitro thyroid microsomes from rats or pigs, and a limited number of human ex vivo (Nagasaka and Hidaka, 1976; Vickers et al., 2012) and clinical studies. There are data to support that gene mutations in TPO result in congenital hypothyroidism, underscoring the essential role of TPO in human thyroid hormone synthesis.

Life stage: Applicability to certain life stages may depend on the species and their dependence on maternally transferred thyroid hormones during the earliest phases of development. The earliest life stages of teleost fish rely on maternally transferred THs to regulate certain developmental processes until embryonic TH synthesis is active (Power et al., 2001). As a result, TPO inhibition is not expected to decrease TH synthesis during these earliest stages of development. In zebrafish, Opitz et al. (2011) showed the formation of a first thyroid follicle at 55 hours post fertilization (hpf), Chang et al. (2012) showed a first significant TH increase at 120 hpf and Walter et al. (2019) showed clear TH production already at 72 hpf but did not analyse time points between 24 and 72 hpf. In fathead minnows, a significant increase of whole body thyroid hormone levels was already observed between 1 and 2 dpf, which corresponds to the appearance of the thyroid anlage at 35 hpf prior to the first observation of thyroid follicles at 58 hpf (Wabuke-Bunoti and Firling, 1983). It is still uncertain when exactly embryonic TH synthesis is activated and how this determines sensitivity to TH disruptors.

Sex: The KE is plausibly applicable to both sexes. Thyroid hormones are essential in both sexes and the components of the HPT-axis are identical in both sexes. There can however be sex-dependent differences in the sensitivity to the disruption of thyroid hormone levels and the magnitude of the response. In humans, females appear more susceptible to hypothyroidism compared to males when exposed to certain halogenated chemicals (Hernandez‐Mariano et al., 2017; Webster et al., 2014). In adult zebrafish, Liu et al. (2019) showed sex-dependent changes in thyroid hormone levels and mRNA expression of regulatory genes including corticotropin releasing hormone (crh), thyroid stimulating hormone (tsh) and deiodinase 2 after exposure to organophosphate flame retardants. The underlying mechanism of any sex-related differences remains unclear.


List of the literature that was cited for this KER description using the appropriate format. Ideally, the list of references should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide (OECD, 2015). More help

Chang HC, Doerge DR. Dietary genistein inactivates rat thyroid peroxidase in vivo without an apparent hypothyroid effect. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 168:244–252 (2000).

Chang, J., Wang, M., Gui, W., Zhao, Y., Yu, L., Zhu, G., 2012. Changes in Thyroid Hormone Levels during Zebrafish Development. Zoological Science 29, 181-184.

Cooper DS, Kieffer JD, Halpern R, Saxe V, Mover H, Maloof F, Ridgway EC (1983) Propylthiouracil (PTU) pharmacology in the rat. II. Effects of PTU on thyroid function. Endocrinology 113:921-928.

Cooper DS, Saxe VC, Meskell M, Maloof F, Ridgway EC. Acute effects of propylthiouracil (PTU) on thyroidal iodide organification and peripheral iodothyronine deiodination: correlation with serum PTU levels measured by radioimmunoassay. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1982 54(1):101-7.

Crane HM, Pickford DB, Hutchinson TH, Brown JA. 2006. The effects of methimazole on development of the fathead minnow, pimephales promelas, from embryo to adult. Toxicological Sciences. 93(2):278-285.

Davidson, B., Soodak, M., Neary, J.T., Strout, H.V., and Kieffer, J.D. (1978). The irreversible inactivation of thyroid peroxidase by methylmercaptoimidazole, thiouracil, and propylthiouracil in vitro and its relationship to in vivo findings. Endocrinology 103:871–882.

Divi, R. L., and Doerge, D. R. (1994). Mechanism-based inactivation of lactoperoxidase and thyroid peroxidase by resorcinol derivatives. Biochemistry 33(32), 9668-74.

Doerge DR, Chang HC, Divi RL, Churchwell Mechanism for inhibition of thyroid peroxidase by leucomalachite green. Chem Res Toxicol. 1998 11(9):1098-104.

Doerge DR, Chang HC.  Inactivation of thyroid peroxidase by soy isoflavones, in vitro and in vivo.  J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Sep 25;777(1-2):269-79

Handa S, Hassan I, Gilbert M, El-Masri H. 2021. Mechanistic Computational Model for Extrapolating In Vitro Thyroid Peroxidase (TPO) Inhibition Data to Predict Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Rats. Toxicological Sciences 183(1):36-48.

Haselman, J.T., Olker, J.H., Kosian, P.A., Korte, J.J., Swintek, J.A., Denny, J.S., Nichols, J.W., Tietge, J.E., Hornung, M.W. and Degitz, S.J., 2020. Targeted pathway-based in vivo testing using thyroperoxidase inhibition to evaluate plasma thyroxine as a surrogate metric of metamorphic success in model amphibian Xenopus laevis. Toxicological Sciences, 175(2), pp.236-250.

Hassan I, El-Masri H, Ford J, Brennan A, Handa S, Friedman KP, Gilbert ME. 2020. Extrapolating In Vitro Screening Assay Data for Thyroperoxidase Inhibition to Predict Serum Thyroid Hormones in the Rat. Toxicological Sciences 173(2):280-292.

Hassan I, El-Masri H, Kosian PA, Ford J, Degitz SJ, Gilbert ME. 2017. Neurodevelopment and Thyroid Hormone Synthesis Inhibition in the Rat: Quantitative Understanding Within the Adverse Outcome Pathway Framework. Toxicological Sciences 160(1):57-73.

Hernandez-Mariano JA, Torres-Sanchez L, Bassol-Mayagoitia S, Escamilla-Nunez M, Cebrian ME, Villeda-Gutierrez EA, Lopez-Rodriguez G, Felix-Arellano EE, Blanco-Munoz J. 2017. Effect of exposure to p,p '-dde during the first half of pregnancy in the maternal thyroid profile of female residents in a mexican floriculture area. Environmental Research. 156:597-604.

Hornung MW, Kosian PA, Haselman JT, Korte JJ, Challis K, Macherla C, Nevalainen E, Degitz SJ.  In Vitro, Ex Vivo, and In Vivo Determination of Thyroid Hormone Modulating Activity of Benzothiazoles.Toxicol Sci. 2015 146(2):254-64.

Kessler, J., Obinger, C., and Eales, G. (2008). Factors influencing the study of peroxidase-generated iodine species and implications for thyroglobulin synthesis. Thyroid 18(7), 769-74, 10.1089/thy.2007.0310.

Liu CS, Zhang XW, Deng J, Hecker M, Al-Khedhairy A, Giesy JP, Zhou BS. 2011. Effects of prochloraz or propylthiouracil on the cross-talk between the hpg, hpa, and hpt axes in zebrafish. Environmental Science & Technology. 45(2):769-775.

Liu XS, Cai Y, Wang Y, Xu SH, Ji K, Choi K. 2019. Effects of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (tdcpp) and triphenyl phosphate (tpp) on sex-dependent alterations of thyroid hormones in adult zebrafish. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 170:25-32.

Nagasaka, A., and Hidaka, H. (1976). Effect of antithyroid agents 6-propyl-2-thiouracil and 1-mehtyl-2-mercaptoimidazole on human thyroid iodine peroxidase. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 43:152–158.

Nelson K, Schroeder A, Ankley G, Blackwell B, Blanksma C, Degitz S, Flynn K, Jensen K, Johnson R, Kahl M et al. 2016. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole part i: Fathead minnow. Aquatic Toxicology. 173:192-203.

Opitz, R., Maquet, E., Zoenen, M., Dadhich, R., Costagliola, S., 2011. TSH Receptor Function Is Required for Normal Thyroid Differentiation in Zebrafish. Molecular Endocrinology 25, 1579-1599.

Power, D.M., Llewellyn, L., Faustino, M., Nowell, M.A., Bjornsson, B.T., Einarsdottir, I.E., Canario, A.V., Sweeney, G.E., 2001. Thyroid hormones in growth and development of fish. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 130, 447-459.

Raldua, D., Babin, P.J., 2009. Simple, Rapid Zebrafish Larva Bioassay for Assessing the Potential of Chemical Pollutants and Drugs to Disrupt Thyroid Gland Function. Environmental Science & Technology 43, 6844-6850.

Rehberger, K., Baumann, L., Hecker, M., Braunbeck, T., 2018. Intrafollicular thyroid hormone staining in whole-mount zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos for the detection of thyroid hormone synthesis disruption. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 44, 997-1010.

Ruf, J., and Carayon, P. (2006). Structural and functional aspects of thyroid peroxidase. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 445(2), 269-77, 10.1016/

Stinckens E, Vergauwen L, Blackwell BR, Anldey GT, Villeneuve DL, Knapen D. 2020. Effect of thyroperoxidase and deiodinase inhibition on anterior swim bladder inflation in the zebrafish. Environmental Science & Technology. 54(10):6213-6223.

Stinckens E, Vergauwen L, Schroeder A, Maho W, Blackwell B, Witters H, Blust R, Ankley G, Covaci A, Villeneuve D et al. 2016. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole part ii: Zebrafish. Aquatic Toxicology. 173:204-217.

Taurog A. 2005. Hormone synthesis. In: Werner and Ingbar’s The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text (Braverman LE, Utiger RD, eds). Philadelphia:Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 47–81.

Taurog, A., Dorris, M. L., and Doerge, D. R. (1996). Mechanism of simultaneous iodination and coupling catalyzed by thyroid peroxidase. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 330(1), 24-32,

Thienpont, B., Tingaud-Sequeira, A., Prats, E., Barata, C., Babin, P.J., Raldua, D., 2011. Zebrafish Eleutheroembryos Provide a Suitable Vertebrate Model for Screening Chemicals that Impair Thyroid Hormone Synthesis. Environmental Science & Technology 45, 7525-7532.

Tietge JE, Butterworth BC, Haselman JT, Holcombe GW, Hornung MW, Korte JJ, Kosian PA, Wolfe M, Degitz SJ.   Early temporal effects of three thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitors in Xenopus laevis.  Aquat Toxicol. 2010 98(1):44-50

van der Ven LTM, van den Brandhof EJ, Vos JH, Power DM, Wester PW. 2006. Effects of the antithyroid agent propylthiouracil in a partial life cycle assay with zebrafish. Environmental Science & Technology. 40(1):74-81.

Vickers AE, Heale J, Sinclair JR, Morris S, Rowe JM, Fisher RL. Thyroid organotypic rat and human cultures used to investigate drug effects on thyroid function, hormone synthesis and release pathways. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012 260(1):81-8.

Wabukebunoti MAN, Firling CE. 1983. The prehatching development of the thyroid-gland of the fathead minnow, pimephales-promelas (rafinesque). General and Comparative Endocrinology. 49(2):320-331.

Walter KM, Miller GW, Chen XP, Yaghoobi B, Puschner B, Lein PJ. 2019. Effects of thyroid hormone disruption on the ontogenetic expression of thyroid hormone signaling genes in developing zebrafish (danio rerio). General and Comparative Endocrinology. 272:20-32.

Walter, K.M., Miller, G.W., Chen, X.P., Yaghoobi, B., Puschner, B., Lein, P.J., 2019. Effects of thyroid hormone disruption on the ontogenetic expression of thyroid hormone signaling genes in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio). General and Comparative Endocrinology 272, 20-32.

Webster GM, Venners SA, Mattman A, Martin JW. 2014. Associations between perfluoroalkyl acids (pfass) and maternal thyroid hormones in early pregnancy: A population-based cohort study. Environmental Research. 133:338-347.