Key Event Title
Key Event Component
|thyroid hormone generation||thyroid hormone||decreased|
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
Level of Biological Organization
|thyroid follicular cell|
|Xenopus laevis||Xenopus laevis||Moderate||NCBI|
Life Stage Applicability
|All life stages||Strong|
How This Key Event Works
The thyroid hormones (TH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are thyrosine based hormones. Synthesis of TH is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) binding to its receptor and thyroidal availability of iodine via the sodium iodide symporter (NIS). Other proteins contributing to TH production in the thyroid gland, including thyroperoxidase (TPO), dual oxidase enzymes (DUOX), and pendrin are also necessary for iodothyronine production (Zoeller et al., 2007).
The production of THs in the thyroid gland and resulting serum concentrations are controlled by a negatively regulated feedback mechanism. Decreased T4 and T3 serum concentrations activates the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis which upregulates thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) that acts to increase production of additional THs (Zoeller and Tan, 2007). This regulatory system includes: 1) the hypothalamic secretion of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH); 2) the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion from the anterior pituitary; 3) hormonal transport by the plasma binding proteins; 4) cellular uptake mechanisms at the tissue level; 5) intracellular control of TH concentration by deiodinating mechanisms; 6) transcriptional function of the nuclear TH receptor; and 7) in the fetus, the transplacental passage of T4 and T3 (Zoeller et al., 2007).
TRH and the TSH primarily regulate the production of T4, often considered a “pro-hormone,” and to a lesser extent of T3, the transcriptionally active TH. Most of the hormone released from the thyroid gland into circulation is in the form of T4, while peripheral deiodination of T4 is responsible for the majority of circulating T3. Outer ring deiodination of T4 to T3 is catalyzed by the deiodinases 1 and 2 (DIO1 and DIO2), with DIO1 expressed mainly in liver and kidney, and DIO2 expressed in several tissues including the brain (Bianco et al., 2006). Conversion of T4 to T3 takes place mainly in liver and kidney, but also in other target organs such as in the brain, the anterior pituitary, brown adipose tissue, thyroid and skeletal muscle (Gereben et al., 2008; Larsen, 2009).
Most evidence for the ontogeny of TH synthesis comes from measurements of serum hormone concentrations. And, importantly, the impact of xenobiotics on fetal hormones must include the influence of the maternal compartment since a majority of fetal THs are derived from maternal blood early in fetal life, with a transition during mid-late gestation to fetal production of THs that is still supplemented by maternal THs. In humans, THs can be found in the fetus as early as gestational weeks 10-12, and concentations rise continuously until birth. At term, fetal T4 is similar to maternal levels, but T3 remains 2-3 fold lower than maternal levels. In rats, THs can be detected in the fetus as early as the second gestational week, but fetal synthesis does not start until gestational day 17 with birth at gestational day 22-23. Maternal THs continue to supplement fetal production until parturition. (see Howdeshell, 2002; Santisteban and Bernal, 2005 for review).
Decreased TH synthesis in the thyroid gland may result from several possible molecular-initiating events (MIEs) including: 1) Disruption of key catalytic enzymes or cofactors needed for TH synthesis, including TPO, NIS, or dietary iodine insufficiency. Theoretically, decreased synthesis of Tg could also affect TH production (Kessler et al., 2008; Yi et al., 1997). Mutations in genes that encode requisite proteins in the thyroid may also lead to impaired TH synthesis, including mutations in pendrin associated with Pendred Syndrome (Dossena et al., 2011), mutations in TPO and Tg (Huang and Jap 2015), and mutations in NIS (Spitzweg and Morris, 2010). 2) Decreased TH synthesis in cases of clinical hypothyroidism may be due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis or other forms of thyroiditis, or physical destruction of the thyroid gland as in radioablation or surgical treatment of thyroid lymphoma. 3) It is possible that TH synthesis may also be reduced subsequent to disruption of the negative feedback mechanism governing TH homeostasis, e.g. pituitary gland dysfunction may result in a decreased TSH signal with concomitant T3 and T4 decreases. 4) More rarely, hypothalamic dysfunction can result in decreased TH synthesis.
It should be noted that different species and different lifestages store different amounts of TH precursor and iodine within the thyroid gland. Thus, decreased TH synthesis via transient iodine insufficiency or inhibition of TPO may not affect TH release from the thyroid gland until depletion of stored iodinated Tg. Adult humans may store sufficient Tg-DIT residues to serve for several months to a year of TH demand (Greer et al., 2002). Neonates and infants have a much more limited supply of less than a week.
How It Is Measured or Detected
Decreased TH synthesis is often implied by measurement of TPO and NIS inhibition measured clinically and in laboratory models as these enzymes are essential for TH synthesis. Rarely is decreased TH synthesis measured directly, but rather the impact of chemicals on the quantity of T4 produced in the thyroid gland, or the amount of T4 present in serum is used as a marker of decreased T4 release from the thyroid gland (e.g., Romaldini et al., 1988). Methods used to assess TH synthesis include, incorporation of radiolabel tracer compounds, radioimmunoassay, ELISA, and analytical detection.
Recently, amphibian thyroid explant cultures have been used to demonstrate direct effects of chemicals on TH synthesis, as this model contains all necessary synthesis enzymes including TPO and NIS (Hornung et al., 2010). For this work THs was measured by HPLC/ICP-mass spectometry. Decreased TH synthesis and release, using T4 release as the endpoint, has been shown for thiouracil antihyperthyroidism drugs including MMI, PTU, and the NIS inhibitor perchlorate (Hornung et al., 2010).
Evidence Supporting Taxonomic Applicability
Decreased TH synthesis resulting from TPO or NIS inhibition is conserved across taxa, with in vivo evidence from humans, rats, amphibians, some fish specis, and birds, and in vitro evidence from rat and porcine microsomes. Indeed, TPO and NIS mutations result in congenital hypothyroidism in humans (Bakker et al., 2000; Spitzweg and Morris, 2010), demonstrating the essentiality of TPO and NIS function toward maintaining euthyroid status. Though decreased serum T4 is used as a surrogate measure to indicate chemical-mediated decreases in TH synthesis, clinical and veterinary management of hyperthyroidism and Grave's disease using propylthiouracil and methimazole, known to decrease TH synthesis, indicates strong medical evidence for chemical inhibition of TPO (Zoeller and Crofton, 2005).
Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor
Overview for Molecular Initiating Event
not applicable as this KE is not an MIE
6-n-proylthiouracil is a common positive control
Methimazole is a very common positve control
Bakker B, Bikker H, Vulsma T, de Randamie JS, Wiedijk BM, De Vijlder JJ. 2000. Two decades of screening for congenital hypothyroidism in The Netherlands: TPO gene mutations in total iodide organification defects (an update). The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 85:3708-3712.
Bianco AC, Kim BW. (2006). Deiodinases: implications of the local control of thyroid hormone action. J Clin Invest. 116: 2571–2579.
Dossena S, Nofziger C, Brownstein Z, Kanaan M, Avraham KB, Paulmichl M. (2011). Functional characterization of pendrin mutations found in the Israeli and Palestinian populations. Cell Physiol Biochem. 28: 477-484.Gereben B, Zavacki AM, Ribich S, Kim BW, Huang SA, Simonides WS, Zeöld A, Bianco AC. (2008). Cellular and molecular basis of deiodinase-regulated thyroid hormone signalling. Endocr Rev. 29:898–938.
Gereben B, Zeöld A, Dentice M, Salvatore D, Bianco AC. Activation and inactivation of thyroid hormone by deiodinases: local action with general consequences. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008 Feb;65(4):570-90
Greer MA, Goodman G, Pleus RC, Greer SE. Health effects assessment for environmental perchlorate contamination: the dose response for inhibition of thyroidal radioiodine uptake in humans. Environ Health Perspect. 2002. 110:927-937.
Howdeshell KL. 2002. A model of the development of the brain as a construct of the thyroid system. Environ Health Perspect. 110 Suppl 3:337-48.
Hornung MW, Degitz SJ, Korte LM, Olson JM, Kosian PA, Linnum AL, Tietge JE. 2010. Inhibition of thyroid hormone release from cultured amphibian thyroid glands by methimazole, 6-propylthiouracil, and perchlorate. Toxicol Sci 118:42-51.
Huang CJ and Jap TS. 2015. A systematic review of genetic studies of thyroid disorders in Taiwan. J Chin Med Assoc. 78: 145-153.
Kessler J, Obinger C, Eales G. Factors influencing the study of peroxidase-generated iodine species and implications for thyroglobulin synthesis. Thyroid. 2008 Jul;18(7):769-74. doi: 10.1089/thy.2007.0310
Larsen PR. (2009). Type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase in human skeletal muscle: new insights into its physiological role and regulation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 94:1893-1895.
Romaldini JH, Farah CS, Werner RS, Dall'Antonia Júnior RP, Camargo RS. 1988. "In vitro" study on release of cyclic AMP and thyroid hormone in autonomously functioning thyroid nodules. Horm Metab Res.20:510-2.
Santisteban P, Bernal J. Thyroid development and effect on the nervous system. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2005 Aug;6(3):217-28.
Spitzweg C, Morris JC. 2010. Genetics and phenomics of hypothyroidism and goiter due to NIS mutations. Molecular and cellular endocrinology. 322:56-63.
Thienpont B, Tingaud-Sequeira A, Prats E, Barata C, Babin PJ, Raldúa D. Zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable vertebrate model for screening chemicals that impair thyroid hormone synthesis. Environ Sci Technol. 2011. 45(17):7525-32.
Yi X, Yamamoto K, Shu L, Katoh R, Kawaoi A. Effects of Propyithiouracil (PTU) Administration on the Synthesis and Secretion of Thyroglobulin in the Rat Thyroid Gland: A Quantitative Immuno-electron Microscopic Study Using Immunogold Technique. Endocr Pathol. 1997 Winter;8(4):315-325.
Zoeller RT, Crofton KM. 2005. Mode of action: developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency--neurological abnormalities resulting from exposure to propylthiouracil. Crit Rev Toxicol. 35:771-81
Zoeller RT, Tan SW, Tyl RW. 2007. General background on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Critical reviews in toxicology. 37:11-53.